METABOL¡8M

CATABOLÌSM
ANABOLÌSM
OW THE D¡FFEREE
CATABOLISM
· Exergonic
· Reactions such as
· Glycolysis
· Krebs cycle
· The electron transport
chain
ANABOLISM
· Endergonic
· Reactions such as
· Formation of peptide
bonds between amino
acids during protien
synthesis
· The linkage of glucose
monomers to form
glycogen
:.480 ,9,-482
· Cellular respiration
· Reactions involved
· Glycolysis
· The formation of acetyl coenzyme A
· The kreb cycle
· The electron transport chain
Th0 F,90 41 pyr:;. ,./
· Anaerobic condition
· Ìs reduced via an anaerobic pathway by
addition of two hydrogen atoms to form lactic
acid (LACTATE)
· 2 Pyruvic acid+2NADH+2H+ 2 Lactic
acid + 2NAD+
· Aerobic condition
· Pyruvic acid Acetyl CoA
· This molecule links, glycolysis which occur in
cytosol and the krebs cycle which occurs in
the matrix of mitochondria
F4r2,943 41 A.09y 4A
· Summary: Pyruvate is degraded and
combined with coenzyme A to form
acetyI coenzyme A; hydrogens are
reIeased; and carbon dioxide is
reIeased.
Pyruvate
dehydrgenase
A0r4-. R08pr,943
· The Krebs Cycle
· Decarboxylation of pyruvic acid produces
one CO
2
molecule and one acetyl group
linked to CoA (acetyl-CoA).
· NAD is reduced to NADH (2 electrons
removed from pyruvate).
Two acetyl-CoA groups are oxidized in the Krebs
cycle for each glucose molecule (one six carbon
glucose is oxidized to two 3 carbon pyruvic acid
molecules, each of which is decarboxylated to
produce an acetyl-CoA molecule).
Electrons are picked up by NAD
+
and FAD for the
electron transport chain.
From one molecule of glucose, oxidation in the
Krebs cycle produces six molecules of NADH, two
molecules of FADH
2
, and two molecules of ATP.
Decarboxylation produces six molecules of CO
2
.
Th0 00.9r43 9r,38p4r9 .h,3
· Electrons are brought to the electron
transport chain by NADH.
· The electron transport chain consists of
carriers, including flavoproteins,
cytochromes, and ubiquinones.
· Electrons are passed from one carrier to the
next, the energy is used to drive proton
pumps.
· The final electron acceptor is irreversibly
reduced; it may be oxygen (aerobic) or
another inorganic molecule (anaerobic).
Flavin mononucleotide(FMN)
Cytocromesb,c1,c,a,a3
Ìron-sulphur(Fe-S) ceters ELECTRON CARRÌERS
Copper(Cu) atoms
Coenzymes Q
Th0 h0248249. M0.h,382
41 ATP 030r,943
· Protons being pumped across the membrane
generate proton motive force as electrons
move through a series of acceptors or
carriers.
· Energy produced from movement of the
protons back across the membrane is used
by ATP synthase to make ATP from ADP
and phosphate.
· Ìn eukaryotes, electron carriers are located in
the inner mitochondrial membrane; in
prokaryotes, electron carriers are in the
plasma membrane.

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