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• Dynamic Programming

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**"Dynamic programming algorithm stores the results for
**

small subproblems and looks them up, rather than recomputing them, when it needs them later to solve larger subproblems"

**Steps in developing a dynamic programming algorithm
**

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Characterize the structure of an optimal solution Recursively define the value of an optimal solution Compute the value of an optimal solution in a bottomup fashion Construct an optimal solution from computed information

Matrix chain multiplication

Problem: We are given a sequence(chain) <A1, A2, A3,…An> of n matrices to be multiplied, we wish to compute the product A1A2….An Since matrix multiplication is associative so all ways of parenthesization will yield the same answer. The product of A1A2A3A4 can be parenthesized in five distinct ways:

(A1(A2(A3A4))) (A1((A2A3)A4)) ((A1A2)(A3A4)) ((A1(A2A3))A4) (((A1A2)A3)A4)

Although answer by every one will be same, but the cost of evaluating varies drastically.

Example: A1:10 100 A2 : 100 5 A3: 5 50 ((A1A2)A3):total cost = 10.100 .5+10.5.50= 7500 (A1(A2A3)):total cast 100.5.50 +10.100.50 = 75000

Matrix chain multiplication problem: Given a chain<A1, A2, …An> of n matrices where for i = 1,2…n; matrix Ai has dimension pi-1x pi, fully parenthesize the product A1A2…An in a way that minimizes the number of scalar multiplications. P(n) : no of alternative parenthesizations

P(n) = ∑k=1n-1P(k)P(n-k)

Solution of is Ω(4n/n3/2) i.e exponential in n And so brute force method of exhaustive search is a poor strategy. Let us use Dynamic programming approach Let us divide the problem as:for Ai..j denotes AiAi+1…Aj i <j

To evaluate Ai..j We must find an index k Ai..j = Ai..k Ak+1..j for some k in between I and j. Total cost to get Ai..j = cost of computing Ai..k + cost of Ak+1..j + cost of combining Optimal cost of Ai..j can be obtained by getting each of Ai..k and Ai+1..j optimally.

Thus optimal solution of the original problem can be obtained from the optimal solutions of subproblems.

Recursive solution Let m[i ,j] = minimum no. of multiplications needed to compute the matrix Ai..j. So answer of the given problem m[1,n]. Now m[i,j] can be defined recursively as: m[i , i] = 0 Let k be the index for the optimal solution m[i,j] = m[I ,k ] + m[k+1 , j] +pi-1pkpj

Recursive definition for minimum cost pf parenthesizing the product A1A2….An becomes: 0 if i=j m[i ,j] = min{m[i ,k] + m[k+1 ,j] + pi-1pkpj

To keep track of successive decisions let us use S[i j] to denote the value of index k from where sequence Ai…Aj is to be partitioned. Thus m[i,j] = m[i,k] + m[k+1, j] + pi-1pkpj if I <j = 0 otherwise Optimal costs are calculated by using a tabular bottom approach. Two auxiliary tables m[1..n,1..n] for storing m[i ,j] costs and s[1..n,1..n] for recording indices (k) for optimal costs are used.

for finding m[i ,j] optimal results for Ai..k and Ak+1..j are used and size of Ai..k Is k-i+1 which is less than j-i+1 Also size ofAk+1..j is j-k which is also less than j-i+1 Table m[i,j] is filled by bottom up approach.

6

1

3

2

3

i

3 3 4 5 5 4 5

j

4

5 3 3 3 1

3

2 1

3

2 3

3

Optimal solution

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Optimal way to multiplication of these six matrices

• ((A1(A2A3))((A4A5)A6))

Exercise

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M1 10 x 20 M2 20 x 50 M3 50 x 1 M4 = 1 x 100 Find optimal way of multiplying using Dynamic programming

Solution

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Min no of multiplication = 2200 ( M1 x (M 2 x M3)) x M4

Example

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Let us begin with a simple capital budgeting problem. A corporation has $5 million to allocate to its three plants for possible extension. Each plant has submitted a number of proposals . Each proposal gives the cost of expansion(c ) annd total revenue expected( r ).

Optimal Binary search Tree

**Let the set of identifiers be = {for , do , while. int, if} Binary search trees
**

Average no of searches (if assumed equal probability of occurrence) = 12/5 11/5

for for

do

while

do

int

int

if

while

if

**General case with different probabilities
**

Let us take the set of keys {a1, a2….an} Where a1< a2 < …<.an And p(i)= prob. of ai q(i) = prob that identifier x lies in between ai and ai+1 i.e. ai < x < ai+1 We assume a0 = - and an+1 = Thus ∑ pi + ∑ qi = 1

for do

for

do

while

int

int

if

while

if

Optimal search tree : expected cost is minimum class Ei = set of x s.t. ai < x< ai+1 En = set of x s.t. x > an E0 = set of x s.t. x < a0 objective: minimize (∑p(i) * level (ai) + ∑q(i)(level(Ei) 1))

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**Draw all binary search trees for set { while ,if , do} and find expected costs
**

while

if do while

if do

a

b

do do while

if

do while if if

while

c

d

e

Ex: pi = 1/7 =qi 0.05) A B C D E 15/7 13/7 15/7 15/7 15/7

p=(0.5, 0.1 , 0.05) q= (0.15, 0.1, 0.05,

2.65 1.9 1.5 2.05 1.6

To apply dynamic programming approach we need to view the construction of such a tree as the result of a sequence of decisions. A possible approach would be to make a decision :as to which of the ai’ s should be assigned to the root node of the tree. If we choose ak as root then internal nodes a1, a2, …ak-1 as well as external nodes for the classes E0, E1,…Ek-1 will lie in the left subtree l of the root. Remaining will be

be in the right subtree r. Define cost(l) = ∑1≤i<k p(i) * level (ai) +∑q(i)*(level(Ei) – 1) Cost ( r) = ∑k<i≤np(i) * level(ai) + ∑k<i≤nq(i)*(level(Ei)-1) Note: in both cases cost(l) and cost( r) the level is measured by regarding the root of the respective subtree to be at level 1.

ak

l

r

**To consider costs from ak some extra cost is to be added
**

Let w( i, j) = qi + ∑l=i+1j (q(l) + p(l))

w(i ,j) is the extra cost for the tree containing nodes(ai+1 ,,…..aj)

Expected cost for the tree with ak as root p(k) + cost (l) +cost( r) + w(0 , k-1)+ w( k ,n) W(0, k-1) = q0 + ∑l=-1k-1 (q(l) + p(l))

W(k , n) = qk + ∑l=k+1n (q(l) +p(l))

p(k) + w(0,k-1) + w(k,n) = pk + q0 +∑k-1(p i+ qi) + qk+ ∑k+1 (pi + qi)

= q0 + ∑1k (pi+qi) + qk + ∑k+1n (pi+qi) so to minimize whole cost of the tree cost(l) as well as cost ( r) both should individually be minimized.

Let C(i, j) – cost of optimal binary search tree tij containing ai+1 … aj and Ei ….Ej Cost (l) = C( 0 , k-1) Cost (r ) = c(k , n) Total cost of t0n Pk + c(0, k-1) + c(k , n)+ w(0 , k-1) + w( k , n) So C(0,n) = min {c(0,k-1) + c(k,n) +pk+ w(0,k-1) 1≤k≤n +w(k, n)}

C(i ,j) = min{c(i, k-1)+c(k, j) + pk+ w(i, k-1) + i<k ≤j w(k, j)} C(i,j) = min {c(i ,k-1) , c(k, j) } +w(i,j) Note: C(0,0) = 0 W(i,i)= qi w(0,1) = q(0) +p1+ q1 W(i,j) = qi + ∑i+1j(pl +ql) W(0 , 1) = q0 , p1 + q1 W(1,2) = q1 +p2+ q2

C(1,4) = w(1,4)+min{c(1,1)+c(2,4);c(1,2)+c(3,2); c(1,3)+c(4,4)}

Example: n=4 (a1,a2,a3,a4) =( do, if, int, while) Let P=(3,3,1,1) Q=(2,3,1,1,1) W(i,i)= qi C(i, i)= 0 And r( i,i)= 0 W(i,j) = pj + qj + w(i, j-1)

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A

0

0

1

2

3

4

1,0,0

2,0,0 3,0,0

1,0,0 1,0,0 3,3,4

1

8,8,1 7,7,2 3,3,3

12,19 9,12, 5,8,3 2 2 ,1 14,25 11,19, 3 ,2 2 4 16,32, 2

Wi,i+j Ci,i+j

Ri,i+j

**Optimal binary search tree
**

R(0,4)= 2 i.e. if if

R(2,4)=3

i.e. int do int

while

(a1,a2,a3,a4) =( do, if, int, while)

Exercise

a0 < a2<a3<a4 q = ( 1/8, 3/16, 1/16, 1/16, 1/16) P= (1/4, 1/8 , 1/16, 1/16)

a2 Min cost 33

a1

a4 a2

Plant1 Proposa C1 r1 1 0 0 l 2 1 5 3 2 6 4 - -

Plant2 C2 r2 0 0 1 8 2 9 3 12

Plant 3 C3 r3 0 0 1 4 - - -

Each plant will only be permitted to work on one of its proposals. The goal is to maximize the firm’s revenue resulting from the allocation of the $ 5 million. A straight forward way to solve this is to try all possibilities and choose the best. In this case there are only 3 4 2 = 24 ways of allocating the money. Many of these are infeasible.

For example proposals 3 , 4 and 1 for the three plants costs $6 million

Let us break the problem into three stages: Each stage represents the money allocated to a single plant. So stage one represents the money allocated to plant 1 Stage 2 the money to plant 2 Stage 3 the money allocated to plant 3 Each stage is divided into states.A state encompasses the information required to go from one stage to the next

{0,1,2,3,4,5}: the amount of money spent on plant 1. {0,1,2,3,4,5}: the amount of money spent on plants 1 and 2 {5}: the amount of money spent on plants 1,2 and 3. Associated with each state is a revenue. Note that to make a decision at stage 3, it is only necessary to know how much was spent on plants 1 and 2, not how it was spent.

If the available Then the optimal capital is revenue proposal is 1 1 is 2 3 4 3 3

the for stage 0

5 6 6 6 6

We are now ready to compute for stage 2. In this case we want to find the best solution for both plants 1 and 2. We want to calculate the best revenue for a given amount for plants 1 and 2. We simply go through all the plant 2 proposals, allocate the given amount of fund to it and use the above table to see how plant 1 will spend the remainder.

Suppose we want to determine best allocation for state value 4. 1 Proposal 1 of 2 gives revenue 0, leaves 4 for plant 1 which returns 6: total:6 2 proposal 2 of 2 gives revenue 8 leaves 2 for plant 1 which returns 6: total:14 3 proposal 3 of 2 gives revenue 9, leaves 1 for plant 1 which returns 5: total:6 4 proposal 4 of 2 gives revenue 12, leaves 0 for plant 1 which returns 0: total:12

If available Then the And the capital x2 optimal revenue for proposal is stages 1 and 2 is 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 2 or 3 4 0 5 8 13 14 17

We can now go on to stage 3. The only value we are interested in is x3 = 5. One again we go through all the proposals for this stage, determine the amount of money remaining and use the above table to decide the value for previous stages. Proposal 1 of plant 3 gives revenue 0 and leaves 5 to prev. stage giving revenue = 17 Proposal 2 of plant 3 gives revenue 4 leaves 4 prev stages give 14 so total

Here calculations are done recursively. Stage 2 calculations are based on stage 1, Stage 3 only on stage 2. In fact given at a state all future decisions are made independent of how you got to the state. This is principle of optimality. Dynamic programming rests on this assumption.

Principle of Optimality

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AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF DECISIONS HAS THE PROPERTY THAT WHATEVER THE INITIAL STATE AND DECISIONS ARE, THE REMAINING DECISIONS MUST CONSTITUTE AN OPTIMAL DECISION SEQUENCE WITH REGARD TO HE STATE RESULTING FROM THE FIRST DECISION.

Denote r(kj) the revenue for proposal kj at stage j and by c(kj) the corresponding cost. Let fj(xj) be the revenue of state xj in stage j

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