Guide: Mrs.Heena kauser
By Johnson.A.P (1hk06is017)




Modem stands for MOdulator/DEModulator.

Modulator converts digital information to Analog information..
Demodulator converts analog information to Digital information.


Features of modems Voice over Data Speed Auto Dial /Redial: Auto Answer Self-Testing Synchronous Asynchronous Transmission .

. A demodulator is an electronic circuit used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave Digital to analog conversion: Converts digital information to analog information.HOW DOES A MODEM WORK? Modulation is the addition of information (or the signal) to an electronic or optical signal carrier. Common modulation methods include: Amplitude modulation (AM) Frequency modulation (FM) Phase modulation (PM) delayed temporarily Demodulation is the act of extracting the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave. Analog to digital conversion: Converts anolog information to digital information.


ERROR CORRECTION: Modems verify if the information sent to them has been undamaged during the transfer.Other functions in modem DATA COMPRESSION: Transmission of many bits of data at the same time. .

PARALLEL TO SERIAL CONVERSION . A UART is an integrated circuit that converts parallel input into serial output. DATA BUFFERING: It is done using a UART..FLOW CONTROL: The receiving modem to tell the other to pause while it catches up.

TYPES OF MODEMS Modems are widely classified into two types: Internal Modems External modems: External modems are further classified into three types oDSL modems oCable modems oWireless modems .

INTERNAL MODEMS An internal modem is a device installed inside a desktop or laptop. . allowing the computer to communicate over a network with other connected computers. There are two types of internal modems Dial-up Wi-Fi(wireless).

.EXTERNAL MODEMS A self-contained modem that is connected to the serial or USB port of a computer. The telephone line plugs into a socket on the rear panel of the modem. External modems have their own power supply and connect with a cable to a computer's serial port.

DSL modem technology is designed to take advantage of this extra capacity to transmit digital data. . DSL technology is made possible by the fact that a normal telephone line is made up of two copper wires to carry voice calls. in the form of analog data. the two lines have the capacity to transmit even more than just phone conversations. However.DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) MODEM: (DSL) modem is exclusively used for connections from a telephone switching office to the user.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DSL •ADSL .ISDN over DSL •RADSL .Asymmetric DSL •HDSL .High bit-rate DSL •IDSL .Very high bit-rate DSL .Symmetric DSL •VDSL .Rate-adaptive DSL •SDSL .

A special filter. Typical configurations today are 2Mb downstream and 128Kb upstream.Asymmetric DSL ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) is a type of DSL where the upstream and downstream bandwidth are assigned different amounts of bandwidth. is installed on a subscriber's telephone line to allow both ADSL and regular voice (telephone) services to be used at the same time. Downstream(2mbps) SERVER Upstream(128 kbps) LOCAL USER .ADSL . called a micro filter.

A T1 line refers to a specific type of copper or fiber optic telephone line that can carry Downstream(2mbps) more data than traditional telephone lines.HDSL (High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line) High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) was the first DSL technology to use a higher frequency spectrum of copper. using T1 lines. or it can carry data at a rate of 1. and also to carry high-speed corporate data links and voice channels. twisted pair cables. synchronous circuits typically used to interconnect local exchange carrier systems.544 megabits per second. Upstream(128 kbps) LOCAL USER . A T1 line can carry 24 digitized voice channels. As a better technology for high-speed.

SDSL (Symmetric DSL) It is a service that offers upstream and downstream data rates at the same speed. SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is used in Europe and has the same data rates for downstream and upstream transmission which is 128 Kbits/s. Downstream(128Kbps) Downstream(2mbps) SERVER Upstream(128 kbps) Upstream(128 kbps) LOCAL USER LOCAL USER .

System uses RADSL to deliver from 640 Kbps to 2. Downstream(2mbps) Upstream(128 kbps) LOCAL USER .RADSL (Rate-adaptive DSL) RADSL (Rate-Adaptive DSL) is an ADSL technology in which software is able to 5 determine the rate at which signals can be transmitted on a given customer phone line and adjust the delivery rate accordingly.088 Mbps upstream over an existing line.2 Mbps downstream and from 272 Kbps to 1.

.IDSL (ISDN over DSL) ISDN-based technology to provide a data communication channel across existing copper telephone lines. The benefits of IDSL over ISDN are that IDSL provides always-on connections and transmits data via a data network rather than the carrier's voice network.

000 feet RADSL Rate-Adaptive DSL Adapted to the line. motion video.9 to 52. 8. 2. Line 1.000 feet at 25. Upstream Distance Limit Application IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber Line 128 Kbps 18.1 Mbps downstream. Very high Digital Subscriber 1.500 feet at 12.000 remote LAN access feet.048 Mbps duplex on three twisted-pair lines 12.S.96 Mbps. 640 Kbps to 2.544 to 6.000 feet on 24 gauge wire Similar to the ISDN BRI service but data only (no voice on the same line) T1/E1 service between server and phone company or within a company.088 Mbps upstream Not provided 4.544 Mbps duplex (U. LAN.000 feet at 51. server access HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line 1.000 feet on 24 Europe) on a single duplex line downstream and gauge wire upstream Same as for HDSL but requiring only one line of twisted-pair ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 1.2 Mbps downstream. 16 to 640 Kbps upstream 1. 2.000 feet.6 Mbps to 2. feet. 272 Kbps to 1.3 Mbps downstream ATM networks. WAN.048 Mbps at 16.000 Used for Internet and Web access. Fiber to the Neighborhood .82 Mbps. 2.DSL Type Description ` Data Rate Downstream.000 feet on 24 gauge wire SDSL Symmetric DSL 1. 6.048 Mbps ( 12.544 Mbps at 18. 1.312 Mpbs at 12. video on demand.84 Mbps Similar to ADSL VDSL 12.3 Mbps upstream.5 to 2. and Canada).8 Mbps downstream. 3.448 Mbps at 9.544 Mbps duplex on two twisted-pair lines.

An extremely fast access to the Web is providing by the cable modem with downstream transmission up to 38 Mbits/s and an upstream transmission up to 1 Mbits/s. Downstream(2mbps) Upstream(128 kbps) LOCAL USER .CABLE MODEMS The cable modem uses a coaxial cable television lines to provide a greater bandwidth than the dial-up computer modem.

Wireless modems operate at speeds comparable to dialup modems. USB and Serial Port. Networks which support wireless modems include: CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) .5 WIRELESS MODEMS Wireless modem is a type of modem which connects to a wireless network instead of to the telephone system.5. Wireless modem interfaces include PCMCIA. Compact Flash. not anywhere near the speed of broadband Internet connections.

. •A cable modem provides a continual connection to the Internet. •They can be used on any brand of computer. •The service will not be interrupted or receive external static since the outer layer of the cable line will not allow any noise to enter the transmission line. CABLE MODEMS: •A cable modem will provide you with rapid download transmission speeds. EXTERNAL MODEMS: •They are easier to troubleshoot.ADVANTAGES OF MODEMS s INTERNAL MODEMS: •Internal modems fit inside your computer.

each subscriber can be configured so that it will not be on the same network. .DSL MODEMS: •Independent services: Loss of high speed data does not mean you lose your telephone service. •High bandwidth WIRELESS MODEMS: •The wireless nature of such networks allows user to access network resources from nearly any convenient location within their primary networking environment(home or office). television. and Internet access going out when a cable company amplifier/repeater dies. users can access the internet even outside their normal work environment. •With emergency of public wireless networks. Imagine your telephone. •Integration: DSL will easily interface with ATM. Nx64. •Security: Unlike cable modems. and WAN technology.

Downstream/Upstream ratios may be unacceptably high (3 or more •Reliability and potential down time issues makes DSL a very risky choice for mission critical systems unless backup / fail over links are put in place. . •They require addition power supply. its not widely available. rural areas get shorted. the lower the data rate. •With the increasing number of customers the amount of bandwidth decreases and makes the connections slower as the system tries to accommodate the needs of every user in the network. DSL MODEMS: •Expensive: •Distance dependence: The farther you live from the DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer). •Access: Once again. CABLE MODEMS: •The first and foremost con is that getting this technology is difficult. Hence they take up a slot inside your computer. EXTERNAL MODEMS: •Since they are present externally they occupy additional desktop space.Disadvantages of modems INTERNAL MODEMS: •Same internal modem cannot be used for all brand of computer •They are present internally. The longest run lengths are 18. •Asymmetry.000 feet. •They are more expensive compared to internal modems. or a little over 3 miles.

PSTN (public switched telephone network) is the global collection of interconnects originally designed to support circuit-switched voice communication. Circuit switching network is one that establishes a circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users. adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. data. may communicate .Introduction to ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice. video. and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines.

on the same line. Up to 64 "call appearances" of the same or different telephone numbers. still and moving images. •It handles all types of information Voice. while separate Data channels (or D channels) carry call set-up. studio-quality sound. responsive transmission speeds. broken down and reassembled.FEATURES OF ISDN •It builds on groups of standard transmission channels. fax machines or computers. fax or PC "conversations. •It supports up to three calls at the same time. •It handles many devices and many telephone numbers. Two voice. Bearer channels (or B channels) transmit user information at relatively high speeds. . signaling and other information. Up to 8 separate telephones. data. Two or more channels can be combined." and one data "conversation” •It offers variable.


Motorola Terminal Adapter A Network Termination (NT) is a device connecting the customer's data or telephone equipment to the local exchange carrier's line.Terminal adapter or TA is a device that connects a terminal (computer) to the ISDN network. BENSCE Network Termination . The NT device provides a connection for terminal equipment (TE) and terminal adapter (TA) equipment to the local loop.

The U interface for BRI is a 2-wire. 160 kb/s digital connection.consists of two 64 kb/s B channels and one 16 kb/s D channel for a total of 144 kb/s. PRIMARY RATE INTERFACE: Primary Rate Interface (PRI) which is intended for users with greater capacity requirements.TYPES OF ISDN SERVICE Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Primary Rate Interface (PRI) BASIC RATE INTERFACE(BRI): Basic Rate Interface(BRI) . Echo cancellation is used to reduce noise. Typically the channel structure is 23 B channels plus one 64 kb/s D channel for a total of 1536 kb/s. .

 MULTIPLE CHANNEL: ISDN allows multiple digital channels to be operated simultaneously through the same regular phone wiring used for analog lines.ADVANTAGES OF ISDN  SPEED: There is an upper limit to the amount of information that an analog telephone line can hold. it sends a digital packet on a separate channel.  MULTIPLE DEVICES: ISDN allows multiple devices to share a single line. . It is possible to combine many different digital data sources and have the information routed to the proper destination. Currently.  SIGNALING: Instead of the phone company sending a ring voltage signal to ring the bell on the phone. it is about 56 kb/s bidirectional.

you cannot make resources on your network permanently available to other Internet users. Email delivery would be slightly more irregular than a permanent Diginet connection .DISADVANTAGES OF ISDN More expensive than the Plain Old Telephone System (POTS). . The telephone company and the remote computer both need specialized equipment. As your site only has dial-up connectivity.

APPLICATIONS OF ISDN Video conferencing: Internet Fax Answering Machine Voice Recorder Mailbox File Transfer High speed data transfer Internet Fax Answering Machine Voice Recorder Mailbox File Transfer Remote vieo servalliance .

integrating voice. which provides cost. video and image. ISDN brings us closer to the goal of a ubiquitous multi-service network. .effective networking through the public telephone networks. data.CONCLUSION ISDN is an underlying technology. ISDN is an important step forward in the adaptation of the network to handle the increasing global demand for computer-to computer data communications.


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