# Pipe Flow : Philosophy, sizing, and simulation

Presenter: Rizaldi

Module objectives
 By

the end of this module you will:

– Have knowledge what’s behind the flow – Recognize and identify parameter, criteria, and proper equation for pipe sizing – Get Brief introduction Hydraulic simulation (pipephase as case study)

PT. TRIPATRA
ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS

1

Introduction

Proper design and fully accomplish consideration should be taken in order to optimize performance and avoid undesired event

PT. TRIPATRA
ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS

2

Fluid Behaviour
 Newtonian

Fluid : viscosity is proportional to relative movement rate/shear stress newtonian Fluid : viscosity is not proportional to relative movement rate

 Non

PT. TRIPATRA
ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS

3

Reynold Number
 At

low flowrate pressure drop is proportional to the flowrate, but as flowrate increase until certain points, the relationship between two become nonlinear

 Re  Re

= momentum/viscous shear stress = ρ.v2/(µ.v/D)

 Re

= ρ.v.D/µ

PT. TRIPATRA
ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS

4

Reynold Number  Flow Regime based on Reynold number : a. Re < 2000 = Laminer : fluid elements moved in smooth layers relative to each other with no mixing b. characterized by high degree of mixing of fluid elements PT. Re > 4000 = Turbulence : unstable flow pattern. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 5 .

Conservation of mass    For steady state : PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 6 .

Conservation of momentum  (bernouli eq) PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 7 .

Conservation of Energy PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 8 .

Bernouli Equation (derivation form)  for liquids :  For gas : modified Bernoulli PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 9 .

Sizing and Hydraulic Evaluation  What do we need to know ?  What are the critical Parameter? correlation/equation to be used?  Which  What are the outputs? PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 10 .

   Fluid properties : Viscosity. Phase determine the characteristic of fluid and to be consider to derive proper equation  Flowrate : Quantity of the fluid. pipe length) PT. two phase. slurry (not to be discussed). Pressure. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 11 . in volumetric rate or in mass rate. Single phase gas.What do we need to know?  Phase : Single phase Liquid. density System arrangements (elevation. fittings.Consider maximum and minimum condition which will happen during operation Process condition : Temperature.

What do we need to know (summarize)  Phase  Flowrate  Temperature  Fluid  Fluid viscosity density change  Elevation  Fittings  Pipe length 12 PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS .

noise velocity) drop  Pressure  Select diameter in which will give satisfied parameter value PT. min.Critical Parameter  Velocity (max. erosion velocity. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 13 . entrainment velocity. sonic velocity.

= 100.Velocity  Limit between certain values to attain economical and safe operation Erosion velocity : Commonly used as parameter for two phase flow. velocity at which erosion or excessive wear on elbows will start to occur identified by equation : C/(ρm^0.5) Where C = empirical constant. for continues solid free (employing corrosion resistant alloy) Where ρm = density of liquid-gas mixture PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 14 . for non-continues solid free service  = 150 – 200. if continues solid free = 125.

Can occur in liquid called “chocked” flow PT. which equivalent to speed of sound.Velocity  Noise velocity : Velocity at which will cause noise above the noise limit (commonly 85 dB . API 14 give identification above 60 ft/s  Sonic velocity : The maximum velocity that a compressible fluid flowing in a pipe of uniform cross-section can achieve is limited by the maximum velocity of pressure wave travel in the pipe. Noise and vibration increase when sonic velocity approached. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 15 .90dB).

Pressure Drop  Items of pressure Drop : a. elevation change d. Fitting loss c. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 16 . flow element PT. Line friction loss b. heat exchanger.miscelenaous loss : Control valve.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 17 .Typical velocity and Pressure Drop Limitation (fluor daniel) PT.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 18 .Typical velocity and Pressure Drop Limitation (Chevron manual) PT.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 19 .Typical velocity and Pressure Drop Limitation  Two phase flow velocity limit: min : 10 ft/s (API 14 E) max : erosion velocity PT.

Two phase flow PT. Single phase gas flow c. Single phase liquid flow b.Pressure Drop Equation  Proper equation shall be use for spesific case/phase : a. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 20 .

using Darcy Equation :  Elevation loss :  Fitting Loss : PT.A. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 21 . Single Phase Liquid Flow  Straight pipe.

A. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 22 . Single Phase Liquid Flow  Fitting loss can also be obtained using equivalent length method :  Friction factor ( f ) obatined using moody/darcy friction factor : PT.

Single Phase Liquid Flow  For liquid with Re > 2000 . TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 23 .A. using Colebrook Equation:  Where f = friction factor d = pipe diameter E = pipe roughness PT.

6 d0.174 ft/sec2 PT.A.78 + fL/D)0.5 X0.25) since. Single Phase Liquid Flow  Gravity Flow Mechanical Energy Balance : Friction Lost : E = W (V2/2g) (k1 + fL/D + k2) (V12/2g + H1 + 144 P1/d) W1 – (V22/2g + H2 + 144 P2/d) W2 = E D = (W0. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 24 . 32.          constant mass flow & no pipe size change.5) (1. V = V1 = V2 k1 and k2 are K factors for pipe entrance and exit L is total equivalent pipe length excluding the entrance and exit effect in ft D is pipe diameter in ft d is the liquid density f is Darcy friction factor W equals W1 or W2 A is the pipe cross sectional area in ft2 X is the gravity flow driving force in ft g is gravitational constant.25 / (150.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 25 .General Equivalent Length (GPSA) PT.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 26 .B. Single Phase Gas Flow  Two models : a. Isothermal straight pipe loss : PT.

B. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 27 . Single Phase Gas Flow  Fitting loss : PT.

Single Phase Gas Flow  B.B. adiabatic flow (use in many simulation software) PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 28 .

Annular.C. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 29 . Slug. annular PT. churn(froth). Slug. Wavy. Plug.  Vertical : Bubble. Two Phase Flow  Flow regime : Horizontal vs Vertical  Horizontal : Bubble. Mist/Spray Flow. Stratified.

Two Phase Flow  Bubble Flow :  Plug Flow : PT.C. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 30 .

Two Phase Flow  Stratified Flow  Wavy Flow PT.C. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 31 .

Two Phase Flow  Mist/spray Flow  Slug Flow PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 32 .C.

C. Duikler – Taitel b. Two Phase Flow  Pressure Drop Calculation : a. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 33 . Beggs and Brill PT.

C. Two Phase Flow  A. Dukler Taitel PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 34 .

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 35 .C. Two Phase Flow  Dukler Taitel Maps PT.

C. Two Phase Flow  Beggs and Brill PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 36 .

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 37 .C. Two Phase Flow  Beggs and Brill PT.

C. Two Phase Flow  Beggs and Brill PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 38 .

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 39 . Two Phase Flow  Beggs and Brill Maps PT.C.

No No 2) 4) Downw.C. 1 2 Other Methods (summary) Flow Direction Methods Mandhane (Dukler / C&M/ L&M) Eaton-Dukler Flow Map Yes No 1) Liquid Holdup Yes Yes Horizontal Yes Yes Vertical Upw.Oliemans Eaton .Oliemans BJA-2 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes 5) Yes ± 6° ± 6° 8 9 10 11 12a 12b Mukherjee / Brill Orkiszewski Gray Hagedorn-Brown HTFS Homogeneous Flow HTFS with Slip Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes No 6) Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes 13 Duns and Ros Yes Yes No Yes No No PT. Two Phase Flow  No. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 40 . No No 2) 4) Inclined ± 6° ± 6° 3 4a 4b 5 6 7 Dukler-Taitel Beggs & Brill Yes Yes Yes No No 3) 3) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ± 6° 4) Beggs & Brill / Palmer KSLA .

however. These are selected based on the flow regime predicted by the Mandhane flow map. Two Phase Flow  Mandhane  The Mandhane method is a hybrid horizontal flow correlation.C. Annular-mist flow regime. which is a combination of other existing correlations. Holdup predictions for the Annular. are not satisfactory by any of the methods.For inclined lines (less than 6 degrees upwards or downwards) the pressure drop is calculated as for horizontal lines. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 41 . The pressure recovery is calculated using the two-phase density. A new correlation has to be developed. PT. This method gives better matching results with test data than any of the methods used on its own.

Two Phase Flow  KSLA-Olemans  For the calculation of holdup and pressure losses.C. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 42 . except for stratified downward flow. A test facility was made for an 8” line at 75 bar and the results from the field tests were confirmed by the method. the results have to be treated with care. upwards and downwards and for vertical lines. in between 70 – 90 degrees. The liquid loadings were increased to give other flow regimes than stratified wavy flow. For all other inclinations. The liquid holdups are systematically 13% over-predicted. The pressure drop is calculated using the two-phase density for upward and for downward flow. where the gas density has been used PT. however. this method can only be used for horizontal and inclined lines up to 10 degrees.

C. Baker Jardine and Associates (BJA) have developed this method from pipeline operating data PT. Two Phase Flow  BJA-2  This method has been specially developed for large diameter. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 43 . but accounts for the increased interfacial shear resulting from the liquid surface roughness. The pressure-loss calculation procedure is similar in approach to the Oliemans method. high-pressure gas / condensate pipelines with low liquid volumes of 1% or less. These correlations appear to give consistently more reliable holdup and pressure drop predictions than the other correlations tested and have been used in the design of several large pipeline and gas gathering systems in the North Sea.

working at about 8-9 barg. For downhill flows. All other pressure drop calculations for other line inclinations are very well matching PT. The stratified flow regime in downflow was bound to be affected appreciable by the angle of inclination. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 44 . Different empirical equations for the flow regime transitions are proposed that are functions of inclination angle for both upflow and downflow. Two Phase Flow  MULHERJEE-BRILL  The prediction of flow pattern is based on experimental data on air-kerosene and air-lubricating oil mixtures in a 3. In general. type of flow regime map. the flow regimes and their transition for upflow were similar to those proposed by Duns and Ros for vertical upflow. Flow regime maps were drawn for different inclination angles. this method normally overpredicts the pressure drop with 10 – 40% for –1 to – 45 degrees inclined lines. the flow regimes and transitions conformed more to the Mandhane et. al. including horizontal and vertical flow.81 cm ID pipe. For downflow.C.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 45 . This will give reasonable results PT. Measurements were done on oil wells with oil-gas and oil-water-gas mixtures in 3” – 8. Two Phase Flow  ORKISZEWSKI  The Orkiszewski method is a hybrid vertical flow correlation.75” lines. with the contribution of one himself. which is a combination of other existing correlations.C. Instead use a 10” diameter pipe and recalculate the loadings. so that the line velocity stays the same. Do not use this method for lines larger than 10”.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 46 . The recommended ranges for use are: – – – – Angle of inclination  70 degrees Velocity  15 m/s Pipe diameter  3.C.5 inches Liquid condensate loading  50 bbl / MMSCF (280 m3/106 Nm3) PT. and should not be used for horizontal pipes. Two Phase Flow  GRAY  The Gray method has been especially developed for gas condensate wells.

assumed for the total pressure gradient . collected for pipe between 1” and 2” diameter PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 47 . They did not measure holdup experimentally.C. Hagedorn and Brown’s major contribution is their holdup correlation for vertical flow. Two Phase Flow  HAGEDORN-BROWN  This correlation is not flow regime dependent and basically their calculation method is the extended homogeneous case. rather they measured the pressure gradient and calculated the holdup necessary for the total pressure gradient to give the observed value. They used a very large amount of data.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 48 . PT.Hydraulic Simulation (Pipe phase case study)  Modelling both single phase and two phase flow inside pipeline and piping networks and includes standard industrial compositional and noncompositional PVT predictive methods.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 49 .Hydraulic Simulation (Pipe phase case study)  Calculation module : Network and Single link PT.

Gas Heating Value. Pressure and temperature to estimate properties  Black PT. Compositional methode PVT : user inputs some properties  Tabular  Compositional : user inputs fluid composition.Black Oil. user input API gravities. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 50 . gas oil ratio. while phase and properties generated by built-in thermodynamic function. Oil : at minimum.Hydraulic Simulation (Pipe phase case study)  Input for thermodynamic calculation : Tabular PVT.

arrangements can be modeled  Pipe PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 51 .Hydraulic Simulation (Pipe phase case study)  Pressure Drop Correlation method can be selected  Heat transfer model can be selected  Using source and sink method. Data on one of side shall be completed to run the iteration.

TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 52 .Hydraulic Simulation (Pipe phase case study)  Calculation method PT.

Hydraulic Simulation (Pipe phase case study)  Pressure Drop Calculation method PT. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 53 .

Other hydraulic simulation used by Tripatra. TRIPATRA ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS 54 .PT PT.

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. @9f¾  #\$\$ %0 7808 2094/ 8 ..:.90 90 4. -7/ .3  3890.8:7020398 070 /430 43 4 08 9 4 .20907 550 . 14 .9438 9 90 .4770.707 9.0 70.20 %8  ..-0 708:98 !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .079.9 90 30 .943 ./ :80 .9 89..42-3.8 29:708 3    308 4 349 :80 98 2094/ 147 308 .3/ 4 .943 41 4907 0893 .4397-:943 41 430 2801 0.  /.3/ 70.843.8 .04./38 84 9.4770. 8 .907 .8 90 8.

.

70 30413.42203/0/7. @9f¾  # %07./0.5508 %070.8.43/038.8-0030850.943K  /07008 '04.3.0450/147.9008 .9 2..308147:80.3/84:/349 -0:80/14747439.2094/.

20907  3.8 !50/./3  --.904.08 6:/.43/038.

\$  2.

 2 !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .

.

40. 7..90/ 90 4/:5 30.0/473 .4770.07 .907 90 20.0 90 4-807.20907 !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .9.3/  /.3/ -..90/ 147 550 -09003  . 14 %0 // 349 20.:.70 ..088.. . .88:20/ 147 90 949.:0 %0 :80/ .47 .8:70/ 90 57088:70 7. 907 .7 147 90 949.. @9f¾   # #  %8 .079.8:70 4/:5 05072039.943 2094/ 8 90 0903/0/ 4240304:8 .:..943 147 .3/ . 57088:70 7.0/ . 57088:70 7.80 ./039 ./039 ..943 8 349 14 7020 /0503/039 ..24:39 41 /.3/ 743 8 2.4397-:943 8 907 4/:5 ./039 94 .4770.8.

3/553309478.:/08 89.3/945.42548943.42548943.80.8014 38/055030.3/3.!'%570/. fn¯f°%9½ ½f¾ nf¾ ¾ % 4/03-498305.3/343 .7/3/:897.02094/8 !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .9..3/..

.94324/:00947.3/\$303 !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  . fn¯f°%9½ ½f¾ nf¾ ¾ % .:.

80.93'.:0 !7088:70.-:..2.3/5745079080307...90574507908 .3/ 902507.943 .-:.  42548943.7!'%:80735:988420574507908 42548943.90/--:9 3 90724/3.42548943  05.908  .94 .9232:2 :80735:9!7.. !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .943%.7 !'% .1:3.80.:80735:981:/.847.2094/0 %. fn¯f°%9½ ½f¾ nf¾ ¾ % 35:914790724/3.2..:..9:70940892.

3020398.3/832094/ .3-0 800.3-0800.0.9432094/.943 !50..90/ 0.425090/947:390907.90/ &8384:7.3810724/0. fn¯f°%9½ ½f¾ nf¾ ¾ % !7088:707454770.997.9..77.-0.4343041 8/08..3-024/00/ !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .

:..9432094/ !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  . fn¯f°%9½ ½f¾ nf¾ ¾ % .

.9432094/ !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  . fn¯f°%9½ ½f¾ nf¾ ¾ % !7088:70745.:.

  fn¾¯f°¾   @½ff 9@ !% %#!%# #\$ \$%#&% #\$  .