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TRANSMISSION LINES

MICROWAVES LESSON 3

DISTRIBUTED COMPONENTS:

The inductance in a transmission line comes about because a current is flowing in a metallic conductor The resistance is associated with the metallic conductor and current flow The capacitive reactance, which is a result of the line capacitance, decreases with an increase in frequency Conductance is the amount of leakage through the dielectric

Some terms associated with transmission lines: 1. VSWR, 2. Reflection coefficient, and 3. Return loss.

TYPES OF TRANSMISSION LINES:


1. Coaxial transmission lines A transmission line in which one conductor completely surrounds the other, the two being coaxial and separated by a continuous solid dielectric or by dielectric spacers. Types: A. Flexible B. Semi-rigid

A. BASIC FLEXIBLE CABLE

Parts of a basic flexible cable:

The center conductor can be either a solid wire or a series of wires in a stranded configuration. The outer conductor serves two functions. It is a ground reference for the signal on the center conductor and also is used as a shield. The braid construction may be single, double, or triaxial (two braids separated by an insulator). The single-braid construction consists of bare, tinned, or silverplated copper wires. The double braid consists of two single braids with no insulation between them. The triaxial consists of two single braids with a layer of insulation between them. The outer coating provides protection for the cable. Such protection is mainly environmental. It plays no part in the electrical performance of the cable.

BNC CONNECTOR

For low power RF signal below 3 MHz; 50 TO 75 ohms impedance

TNC CONNECTOR

It has a 50 impedance and operates best in the 011 GHz

SMA- Sub Miniature Version A

From DC to 18 GHz; 50 ohms impedance

N CONNECTOR

Carries RF signals up to 18 GHz; 50 to 75 ohms impedance


50 ohms (bottom) 75 ohms (top)

B. SEMI-RIGID CABLE

SEMI RIGID vs. FLEXIBLE

1. Semirigid cables cost considerably more than flexible cables 2. For testing applications, semirigid cables are not very practical. Most tests require many connect/disconnect operations, which can put strain on the cables. 3. In some finished products, the cables must meander through the chassis to various locations. Semirigid cable would not fit those applications in many cases.

2.

Strip transmission line (stripline)

It evolved from the circular coaxial device and still has all the original sections (center conductor, dielectric, outside shield, and electric fields) but now is in a form that will operate at much higher frequencies and be more efficient for RF and microwave applications.

Ground-Plane Spacing (GPS) is the spacing between the ground planes, or copper on the circuit boards.

3.

Microstrip transmission line does away with the problem of inaccessibility that stripline poses. Microstrip transmission line, is similar to stripline transmission line, except that there is no top on the transmission line. There is nothing but air on top of the circuitry and a dielectric material underneath

Microstrip

4. Coplanar waveguide
It is a modification of the microstrip circuitry In a coplanar waveguide, there is still a circuit trace on the top of the board that is a certain width and thickness, but there are also ground planes on both sides of the circuit trace and there is no ground plane on the bottom of the circuit board. A conductor surrounded by ground guides the electromagnetic wave down the transmission line.

5. Waveguide
It

provides a path to guide the electromagnetic wave down the line. Waveguide is used at microwave frequencies (particularly at the higher microwave frequencies) for two reasons: They are often easier to fabricate than coaxial lines; and they often can have much less attenuation

APPLICATIONS:

In a microwave oven a waveguide leads power from the magnetron where waves are formed to the cooking chamber. In a radar, a waveguide leads waves to the antenna A waveguide created on a PCB and is used to transmit microwave signals on the board. Waveguides are used in scientific instruments to measure optical, acoustic and elastic properties of materials and objects.

THE END

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