Dry processing mill

Woven fabric finishing mills.
mainly solid waste is
generated due to the rejects
of cotton
Through desizing, scouring,
bleaching,
mercerising, dyeing, printing,
and packing
* C.O.D REDUCTION OF REACTIVE DYEING EFFLUENT
FROM COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
B.V. Babu1*, H.T. Rana2, V. Rama Krishna3, and Mahesh Sharma4
Dyeing is a combined process of bleaching and coloring, which generates
voluminous quantities of wastewaters and in turn causes environmental
degradation
These effluents consist of high TD8 , BOD, COD, pH, Colour, chloride, sulphate,
hardness and carcinogenic dye ingredients
High BOD in untreated wastewater can cause rapid depletion of dissolved
oxygen if it is directly discharged into the surface water sources.
The high alkalinity and traces of chromium {employed in dyes_ adversely affect
the aquatic life.
TEXT¡LE WA8TE *
An estimate shows that textiles account for 14% of ¡ndia's industrial
production and around 27% of its export earnings.
¡ndia is the second largest export of cotton yarn
10,000 garment manufacturers and 2200 bleaching and dyeing
industries in ¡ndia.
Ma]ority are concentrated at Erode and Tirupur district of Tamil Nadu,
8urat in Gu]arat and Ludiyana in Pun]ab.
*Recycling of Woven Fabric Dyeing Wastewater Practiced in
Perundurai Common Effluent Treatment Plant
M. Ramesh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Shanmugam
TEXT¡LE ¡NDU8TR¡E8 ¡N ¡ND¡A *
absorb very strongly at wavelengths in the visible spectrum
are composed of polyaromatic compounds.
are resistant to biological degradation.
DYES
(1) acid dyes, (2) direct (substantive) dyes,
(3) azoic dyes, (4) disperse dyes,
(5)sulfur dyes, (6) fiber reactive dyes,
(7) basic dyes,(8)oxidation dyes,
(9) mordant (chrome) dyes, (10) developed dyes,
(11) vat dyes, (12) pigments,
(13) optical/fluorescent brighteners, and
(14) solvent dyes.
* Textile Dyes and Dyeing Equipment : Classification,Properties, and Environmental Aspects
S. V. Kulkarni, C. D. Blackwell, A. L. Blackard, C. W. Stackhouse, and
M. W. Alexander
DYE8 U8ED ¡N TEXT¡LE ¡NDUDTR¡E8 *
TOX¡COLOGY
OF
TEXT¡LE
DYE8 *
*Environmental Aspects Of Textile Dyeing
Editor (s): R Christie, Herriot-Watt University, UK
What is Acute Toxicity?
Single or multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours).
Acute Toxicity of Textile Dyes
Skin Ìrritation
Skin Sensitisation
Reactive dyes can, however, cause problems in plant workers who manufacture the dyes
and textile workers.
Fig: Mono Chloro Triazinyl (MCT)
Contin..
ACUTE TOXICITY OF TEXTILE DYES
Effect of Reactive Dyes
Reactive Dyes

Human 8erum Albumin [H8A_
Dye - H8A con]ugate
Dye-HSA conjugate, which acts as an antigen. The antigen produces specific
immunoglobulin E (ÌgE) and, through the release of chemicals such as histamine,
causes allergic reactions (Hunger, 2003; Luczynska, 1986).
Fig: A list of reactive dyes that have caused respiratory or skin sensitisation in
Workers on occupational exposure has been compiled by Ecological
and Toxicological Association of Dyes and Organic Pigment Manufacturers [ ETAD ]
What is Chronic Toxicity?
A condition caused by repeated or long-term exposure to low doses of a toxic substance
Chronic Toxicity of Textile Dyes
Non Genotoxicity
Toxicants must reach the DNA (which resides
in the nucleus of the cell) in order for the
chemical to interact with the DNA.
Ìt must possess the ability to interact
with the DNA, usually by a chemical
reaction.
So the toxicants must be able to transport
across the protective cell membranes.
1] Water solubility
1) The hydrophobic (fatty) nature of the
cell membrane is impervious to the
hydrophilic water-soluble molecules.
2) water-soluble molecules are generally
excreted rapidly by a living organism.
2] Water Ìnsolubility
Due to the insolubility , toxicants gets large size
particles [0.1 to 3 mm] in the body which are not
transported across cell membranes.
[e.g.] Pigments
Mutagens
Carcinogens
Teratogens
Chronic Toxicity of Textile Dyes
Carcinogenic Dyes
Active species of most carcinogens, known as the ultimate carcinogen,
is an electrophile, E.
Nitrenium ion [R2N]
carbonium ion [R3C]
Carcinogens attack a nucleophilic site in DNA, which may be a carbon, nitrogen
or oxygen atom, to form a covalent chemical bond
E [DNA] E÷[DNA]
Examples
Azo dyes , Anthraquinone dyes , Cationic dyes , Pigments ,
Aromatic amino- and nitro-compounds , Nitrosamines, hydrazines
and hydroxyIamines
Water-soluble azo dyes most widely used by textile fabric Ìndustries
Water soluble azo dyes are produced the various metabolites .These metabolites only
Develop the Carcinogenic Effects.
Benzidine
Metabolites of Benzidine
Bladder Cancer
Benzidine
AZO DYES
Anthraquinone dyes of the solvent or disperse class containing one or more primary
amino- or methyl amino-groups tend to be mutagenic or carcinogenic.
Disperse Orange 11
Disperse Blue 1
Disperse Violet 1
Anthraquinone Dyes
DYE TOX¡C¡TY
R¡8K
A88E88MENT
Steps in Dye Toxicity Risk Assessment
Hazard ¡dentification
Exposure Assessment
Dose-Response Assessment
Risk Characterization
DYE TOX¡C¡TY R¡8K A88E88MENT
Toxicity of the Azo Dye Methyl Red to Guppy fish
{Poecilia reticulata Peters_
LC50 of Methyl Red ,Healthy mature fish (length=2.3±0.08 cm,width=4.0±0.17 mm)
Different dilution (5-50ppm) of methyl red using tap water were prepared.
RESULT
The fish toxicity at 5ppm of methyl red was also higher in short term experimental study
By the long term experimental studies we can understood the response of the biotic
community in an aquatic eco system receiving pollutants which will guide its restoration.
¡mpact of Textile Dye ¡ndustry Effluent on the Neurosecretory Cells
in Fresh Water Female Crab 8piralothelphusa hydrodroma {Herbst_ *
The effluent was collected in sterile polythene containers and
stored at room temperature analyzed once in five days for about 6
times in a month.
Ìn the experimental female crab S. hydrodroma that were exposed to textile dye
industry effluent (TDÌE) at a sub lethal concentration [ A concentration of chemical that
does not kill an organism. ] (69.66) in two different
exposure periods showed morphological and histological changes in the brain,
thoracic ganglia and eyestalks.
The acute 96 h LC value for TDÌE for S.hydrodroma was found to be 209.89ppm.
Ìnhibition of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, lactate
dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatases at sub lethal concentration
(69.66ppm) of TDÌE.
The inhibition of Succinate dehydrogenase suggests that
the metabolic pathway might have been turned into anaerobic to meet the
increased energy demand during pollution stress.
Contin...
* Impact of TextiIe Dye Industry EffIuent on the Neurosecretory CeIIs in Fresh Water
FemaIe Crab $5iralothel5husa hydrodroma (Herbst)
1 Sekar, 2S. Hariprasad, 3M. Deccaraman
Contin...
¡NDU8TR¡AL EFFLUENT AND HEALTH 8TATU8
A CA8E 8TUDY OF NOYYAL R¡VER BA8¡N *
The Health Status of the villages around the NOYYAL river assessed through three medical camps.
Doctors participated in the medical camps were able to identify the symptoms of waterborne
diseases.
Health problems such as skin allergy, Respiratory infections, general allergy, Gastritis
and Ulcer were scanning among the villagers who attended the medical camp.
Ìt was medically accepted that the polluted water had significant influence on these diseases.
Ìt was assessed that one-fourth of the villagers has any one of the listed of diseases. Most of the
identified patients accepted that they were using either the river water or well water or both for
washing purpose, cleaning the cattle or fishing in the tank etc.
After realizing the ill effects of the water they started avoiding the use of it.
*INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT AND HEALTH STATUS A CASE STUDY OF NOYYAL RIVER BASIN
Dr. K. GovindarajaIu *C.B.M. College, Kovaipudur, Coimbatore, Ìndia.
Impact of TextiIe EffIuents on Fresh Water Fish
astacembelus Armatus
S. KARTHÌKEYAN*, M.JAMBULÌNGAM2, P.SÌVAKUMAR1,A.P. SHEKHAR3
Group of 10 healthy fishes have average length 15 ± 3 cm and weight 80±10 gm
were used for experiment.
Exposed to sub lethal concentration of textile dye -Acid Blue 92 ( CÌ.No. 13390) for a
period of 35 days.
RESULT
The conc. of K, Ca2 and Mg2 ions are increased after the treatment with textile dyes.
The increase in K ion concentration of the sample is attributed to the reduction in the
extra cellular space.
The decrease in Na concentration suggests a change in permeability properties of
different biological membrane system.
Appropriate decrease of Cl ÷ ion concentration in fish might be due to reduced activity of
carbonic anhydrase by the uptake of high Textile Effluents
Biochemical Parameters Of Liver Function ¡n Artisans
Occupationally Exposed To Vat Dyes *
Using convenience sampling technique, a cohort of dye workers (n=117) with a
minimum of one year and a maximum of 60 years duration of exposure
(mean =17.03 ± 1.19 years) were recruited in this study.
Plasma separated from blood samples stored at -20ºC.
Estimation of Plasma albumin , Total Bilirubin were done.
Activity of Alkaline Phosphatase , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate
Transaminase were estimated.
* BiochemicaI Parameters Of Liver Function In Artisans
OccupationaIIy Exposed To Vat Dyes
OIuwatosin O. Soyinka ,Francis A .Adeniyi
Dept. of ChemicaI pathoIogy and immunoIogy ,Obafemi AwoIowo University ,Nigeria
Physico ÷ Chemical Treatment for Textile Dye Effluents
Ìn SÌPCOT Ìndustries
Effluent Treatment Plant [ETP]
Filtration Methods [DMF,UF]
Reverse Osmosis Plant [RO]
Multiple - Effect Evaporator Plant [MEEP]
Solar Bed Evaporation
Effluent Treatment Plant [ETP]
Dye water Treatment
Wash water Treatment
Effluents contain very rich in Dye and
Salt solution.
Less water contents.
Treated directly to the Evaporator system
for recover the salts as well as remaining
less water.
Effluents contain more [70 %] water contents
The treatment system is followed by ETP ,
Filtration ,RO and Evaporator system.
Flow diagram of ETP
Collection Tank
Lime & Ferrous Dosing
Secondary Clarifier
Ultra Filter
Aeration Tank
Flash Mixing Tank
Primary Clarifier
Dual Media Filter
HCL Acid Dosing
Reverse Osmosis
Contin....
Aeration Tank
Primary Clarifier
Secondary Clarifier
Dual Media Filter [DMF]
Ultra Filtration [ UF _
UF system is made by hollow fiber type model membranes
This system is automatically working with the following pumps such as:
1) Feed water Pump.
2) Back wash Pump.
3) Chemical Dosing Pump.
4) Cleaning Pump
The UF system is reducing micron size suspended
particles as well as bacteria and viruses.
The outlet of the UF water have the pH of 7.5-8.0
TDS level is varied from 3000 ppm-3500 ppm
Finally the outlet treated water is passed to the
RO feed tank.
REVER8E O8MO8¡8 PLANT
What is Reverse Osmosis ?
Reverse osmosis is the process of forcing a solvent from a region
of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute
concentration by applying a High pressure.
Ro Plant used to remove the high amount of TDS .
Flow diagram of zero discharge in textile dyeing unit using
advanced treatment
Note:
KLD = Kilo Liters per Day
1 KLD = 1000 Liter
D¡8CU88¡ON
Can we Create the Green Earth Again?

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