VIETNAM LABOR MARKET

Instructor: Duong Manh CUONG Faculty of Economics and Management Hanoi University of Technology Email: cuongdm-fem@mail.hut.edu.vn Tel: 091 201 0566

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COURSE OBJECTIVES

To get information on the labor supply, demand and recent development of the Vietnamese labor market To basically understand the local regulations, policies and other relevant issues To get a deeper understanding of some issues based on in-class case discussions

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COURSE OUTLINE
• Introduction to Vietnam‟s context • Vietnam‟s labor market and recent development • Regulations and policies • Other relevant issues

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POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Population.19% 26/1000 total population: 70.000 đồng) for urban 95% 76% 16% 3.tertiary Illiteracy rate (of population age 15+) Percentage of people below poverty line 2008 350. 86.) Educational attainments of workforce . data from WB 4 .8 years Under-five child mortality rate Life expectancy.000 đồng/người/tháng (old criteria 260.School enrollment.000 đồng/người/tháng (old criteria 200. primary (% gross) .000 đồng) for rural 450.secondary . (2008 est.DEMOGRAPHIC/SOCIAL.2 mil Population growth. 1.74 % 20% (14%) by VN's standards) July 2009.

POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (cont.DEMOGRAPHIC/SOCIAL.) Form of the state Head of the state Government Head of the government Major opposition parties Socialist Republic (oneparty rule) President Nguyen Minh Triet Communist Party of Vietnam Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung None Government structure Ministry of Labor. Invalids responsible for labor and and Social Affairs social security issues (MOLISA) 5 .

9 Billion of US$ 80.services Inflation rate in 2008 Exports in 2008 Imports in 2008 Surplus ($170). annual% 2008 6. $1024 USD ($84.) Real GDP growth.industry . -17.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4130. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (cont.DEMOGRAPHIC/SOCIAL.93% 62.4 (Billion of US$). % of GDP 2008 .23% (GDP $84.5 Bil USD Source: http://www.91 38. 2009 6 .state.htm March .agriculture .98 bil) Per capita income (1993).99 39. 2008 GDP share of sectors.98 bil USD) 21.1 22.

99 39.6 8.5 3.23 3.2 2008 21.a.Economic indicators 2001-05.79 6. (%) 2005 Agriculture 21.97 Services 38.23 3.29 2007 8.52 38.4 10.8 38. growth (%) 7.2  Economic structure by ind. 07 & ‘08  2001-05 Average GDP p.08 2007 20 41. 06.1 *: GSO data 2009 7 .40 41.84 Industry 10.51 in which: Agriculture 3.38 8.33 7.01 2006 20.02 Industry & construction 40.7 2008* 6.24 Services 6.91 38.97 2006 8.69 10.

The growth rate of GDP components (%) 8 .

GDP and export growth rate (%) 10 .

Vietnam FDI attraction Year Registered capital (USD mil.) 1991 1291 1995 6937 1997 5590 2000 2838 2004 4547 2005 6839 2006 12003 2007 21400 2008 60300 Disbursement (USD mil.) 329 2556 3115 2413 2852 3308 4100 8030 11500 .

Joining ASEAN Signing BTA with US Joining the WTO Export-Import growth with bilateral/multilateral agreements 12 .

000 6% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 13 4% .000 12% 10% 8% 10.) Disbursement 25.000 Registered capital FDI sector's contribution to GDP 18% 16% 20.000 14% 15.FDI commitment and disbursement (USD mil.000 5.

000 16.000 4.000 2.000 Crude oil Primary Agricultural resourceintensive Labourintensive production Capitalintensive production Machinery and technologyintensive goods other 2000 2005 2006 2007 14 .) 18.000 14.000 6.000 10.Merchandise export by industrial sub-sectors (USD Mil.000 12.000 8.

Source of imports 15 .

increased transparency and accountability • To replace turnover tax with VAT (5-10%) and replaced profit tax with uniform enterprise tax (25%) 16 . moving to conform trade regime to meet AFTA. and periodically adjusted • Passed organic Budget Law. and WTO requirements • Join WTO by Jan. simplified tax system.SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF VIETNAM’S REFORM PROGRAM   Open economic reform • Passed Foreign Investment Law (with several amendments in response to investor concerns) • Normalization of foreign relations with most countries. APEC. join venture. fiscal and financial sector reform • Developed two tier banking system. increase ODA disbursements and cooperation • Joined ASEAN. 2007 Monetary. broadened system to allow private. and foreign banks • Unified exchange rates closer to the marketdetermined rate.

17 • Increased managerial autonomy of SOE . from 3.786 to 1.SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF VIETNAM’S REFORM PROGRAM (cont.546 over the past nine years (2000-2008).)   Agricultural and non-state enterprise reform • Households replaced state cooperatives as the basic decision making units in agricultural production • The Land Law established household land use rights and increased security of tenure for farm families • Passed Enterprise Law in 1/1/2000 allowing non-state factories and commercial sector activities • Private firms now contribute nearly 80 percent of manufactured products and over 70 percent of non-oil exports Public administration and state enterprise reform • Major changes in government‟s approach to managing and regulating the economy • State control and intervention greatly reduced in a number of areas • The equitization process cut the number of state-owned enterprises by more than half.

)  Social policy and organizational reform • Substantially privatized health care. and other social services • Real per capita spending initially fell but has now increased to above previous peaks • Revised Civil Law. education. Labor Law (1/1/2003)  Salary reforms: • To be implemented during 2001-2009 • Administrative and non-production sectors are to be the first to undertake salary reforms 18 .SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF VIETNAM’S REFORM PROGRAM (cont.

9 bil in 2008) Health and education indicators have generally improved for the majority of Vietnamese 19 Poverty reduction remarkably . FDI flows increased during recent year.a. to 7% in 97-00 Inflation reduced from triple digits to single digits (fr 300% in 1986 to 4 % in 2003 and 22. 2008 Rising share of government spending to GDP but budget deficits kept at around 2% of GDP Value of exports in 1990s growing at over 25% per annum Shift from major rice importer in the mid-1980s to second largest rice exporter in 1996 ($ 2. 1986-90.9% in 2008.SOCIO ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER ECONOMIC REFORM (since 1986)         Per capita income growth averaged from around 3% p. Tight management of money supply. esp 2007.

)  Education: • High literacy. but access to high level education still limited (89% of population from age 10 above is literate for female and 94% for male) (Vietnam Living Standard Survey VLSS 2002) • Primary enrolment rate was 95%. Vietnam introduced a new poverty assessment standard (WB is 1 USD/head/day): 200.000 VND in urban areas. junior high school enrolment rate 76% and tertiary 16% (2008)  Poverty: • Poverty rate decreased fast (23% of population in 1993 in absolute poverty. down to 13% in 2000 • In 2005.LABOR FORCE AND HUMAN RESOURCES (CONT.000 VND in income per head per month in rural and 260. • Poverty rate was 29% in 2007 (below national poverty line) 32 .

) Labor force: • Working age: 15-60 for male. of which    State sectors: 4.8 mil 34 .1 mil FDI: 1.LABOR FORCE AND HUMAN RESOURCES (CONT. 15-55 for female.1 mil Non state sector: 39. • 45 million conducting involved in economic activities in 2008.

3 39132.8 8825.5 FDI Economic stector Agriculture Industry and construction Service (*) Năm 2008: is data at 01/4/2008 700.9 35 .6 23810.2 4073.7 45037.Employment in sectors 2006 2007 1000 persons Estimated 2008(*) Total Ownership Sectors SOEs Non state 43347.0 44171.9 3974.5 12026.2 4007.4 23624.7 1539.3 11535.6 38657.8 1831.8 38639.4 24122.7 11031.8 9385.8 8192.

Labour force by occupation (%) 36 .

73 2.82 6.65 5.49 4.52 2007 4.83 4.85 4.47 4.64 5.42 4.11 4.08 37 .03 Ước tính năm 2008 4.18 5.31 4.95 2.85 4.Tỷ lệ thất nghiệp của lao động trong độ tuổi khu vực thành thị Unemployement rates 2006 Total Red river delta Plateau North mountainous areas Central North and Coastal Central areas Highland East areas Culong Delta 4.38 5.74 3.13 4.50 2.

low productivity. expertise of laborers still inadequate.Some highlights of labor market  Fast growing supply outnumbers less developed demand (new jobs created still limited) serious and increasing unemployment. shortage of skilled labor  Big gap  38 . low wages Supply does not match demand in quality: qualifications.

Some highlights of labor market  Trained laborers concentrate in big urban areas. 45% in urban areas Agriculture is the sector with biggest percentage of employment but has limited number of trained laborers Industry and service sectors have high growth rates but do not create new jobs respectively – thus new entrants still have to look for jobs in agricultural area  imbalance in sector employment allocation 39   . while in rural areas skilled laborers only occupy 13% vs.

Some highlights of labor market  Gap between urban and rural laborers: urban laborers have more access to social benefits (housing. low productivity. medical services).    Big challenges: employment and social benefits for laborers 40 . lack access to market. inability to access social benefits. low income. better employment Gap between formal and informal laborers: laborers in informal sector lack capital. social security Labor policies not effective and well enforced.

COURSE OUTLINE • Introduction to Vietnam‟s context • Vietnam‟s labor market and recent development • Regulations and policies • Other relevant issues 41 .

VIETNAM’S LABOR MARKET   Overview of the labor market Supply of labor • Quantity • Quality   Demand for labor Trends and issues 42 .

INDICATORS OF VIETNAM’S LABOR MARKET Labor force (pers.industry and construction . 4.65% 11. households working in agri sector 4. 2008 Employment by industry (%).) working pop. 2008 Youth unemployment rate (%) (youth: 15-24 years of age) Underemployment (defined as working < 40hrs a week.037 million 57.4 % 24. 2008 . fishing . 4. forestry. 2007.64%.9 % 17.agriculture. as % of total employment) 45.services Informal employment (% of total) Official unemployment rate 2006.7 % 90%. inc.82%.8% 30% 43 .

dollars Vietnam sent 50.Labor Migration Receiving countries and number of migrants How many Vietnamese migrants are there and where do they go to? in 2007. Japan (06/2009) 45 Sending countries and number of migrants Source: Statistics office and www. remitted home about 1. South Korea.7 billion U.vn . there were over 85.980 experts and workers to work abroad in the first seven months of 2008 How many foreigners are there in Vietnam and where are they from? Nearly 53000 foreigners from 42 countries. Singapore. Taiwan.) .000 persons working overseas.vnn.S.INDICATORS OF VIETNAM’S LABOR MARKET (CONT. Major sending countries are China.

LABOR SUPPLY  Supply of labor : • Quantitatively determined by:   Size of labor force (number of people in working age-currently working or unemployed) Number of working hours people work each day/week/year • Qualitatively determined by:   Efforts people put on each hour of work. productivity Level of training and skills people bring to work 46 .

LABOR SUPPLY-QUANTITATIVE     Vietnam has a large. after 2/10/99: 40 hours in public sector 47 .8 mil people entering labor force from 2001 to 2010 Hours of work: Before 2/10/99: 48 working hours per week. young and growing labor force Labor force participation rate: relatively high in Vietnam compared with regional countries. especially women Estimated further 1.

000 people in Vietnam is 6. 47168 Nurse. • More than half of them are in the cities and major provinces. 51112 Midwife 20087 • The number of doctors per 10. That is 15 and 6.5 times lower than that of the USA and Singapore respectively.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE  Health conditions: • ~80% of the labor force located in rural areas where infrastructure is underdeveloped • Total number of medical staff (persons): Doctor 42993 Physician.3. 23% belongs to villages 48 .

139 63.026.053 11.082.Labor Supply Vietnam labor force (prs) Year 1996 2007 Population aged 15 and above total 47.341.248.531 30.895.593.346 45.620.757 rural 28.144.228.091 urban 7. July 2009 49 .839.882 urban 11.793 17.219 35.880.305.965 female 25.964.424.273 47.014 male 22.917 Labor force total 36.608 32.391.243.868 rural 36.334  Source: report on Vietnam labor market.

3% 2004 46% 33% 17% 4.2% No degree & primary school Lower secondary school Upper secondary school Junior College and above  49% 26% 14% 1.5% 2002 51% 30% 16% 3.0% 2006 44% 33% 19% 4.Labor supply  Education structure of working age population 1993 1998 65% 23% 10% 2.8% Source: report on Vietnam labor market. July 2009 50 .

9 7.48 7.99  Source: report on Vietnam labor market.30 8.96 7.85 7.96 6.1 7.Labor Supply Average years of schooling of working age population 1993        1998 2002 2004 2006 All sample Male Female Urban Rural Other minorities Kinh & Chinese 7.92 6.81 7.00 4.18 8.43 7.77 6.78 9.47 7.61 7.42 7.94 6.6 7.5 8.51 5.83 7.9 8.13 8. July 2009 51 .78 7.6 7.02 8.0 7.05 8.7 8.

LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont. especially in the highland and remote areas • Insufficient government investment in health care services: 1% of GDP in 90s. and 5. 1456 bill VND in 2006 • Low expertise of medical treatment • Increasing pollution impacts Source: Vietnam Development report 2007: aiming high by World Bank 52 .3% in 2001-2006.)  Health conditions (cont): • Health care establishment is considerably poor providing inadequate services to community.

adaptability.)  Education conditions: • Traditional heritage: hard working culture. 53 . Central Highlands and the lowest is Mekong River Delta. creativeness. Northern Uplands. quick learning ability • Comparatively high enrolment rate • Seven agro-ecological zones: Red River delta is the leader in education level. Southeast.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont. followed by North Central. willingness to overcome difficulties.

1 1997 1/ 1. • Unreasonable educational distribution: the ratios of university/college per vocational and technical worker has been sharply increased  Gap (VN lacks skilled workers) Year c/u per vocational per technical 1979 1/ 2.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.)  Education conditions (cont.7 2007 1/1/3 2007 1/4/10 (Malaysia) Only 27% vocational and technical worker (2007) 54  .5/1.) • Difference between urban and rural areas: higher education level in urban and the gap tends to increase gradually • Women‟s education level is nearly equal to men‟s.2 /7.

Labor supply  Education structure of working age population 1993 1998 65% 23% 10% 2. July 2009 55 .5% 2002 51% 30% 16% 3.0% 2006 44% 33% 19% 4.2% No degree & primary school Lower secondary school Upper secondary school Junior College and above    49% 26% 14% 1. still low skill  Source: report on Vietnam labor market.3% 2004 46% 33% 17% 4.8% Unskilled workers ratio is high Proportion of high skill workers is low Vietnam has abundant workforce.

2 4.9 4. July 2009 • More vocational training for skilled workers are needed • Vocational training program has been lauched by the government 56 .1 2003 8.3 2002 8.3 Source: report on Vietnam labor market.4 9.4 2004 9.2 4.1 2.9 2005 10.1 4.7 5.0 3.Labor Supply Proportion of workers with skills Year Total Vocational training College and above 1996 11.0 4.4 4.

Labor Supply 57 .

EDUCATION-A COMPARISON Country Vietnam South Korea College/university graduates per 1000 heads 11 52 Singapore Italia Japan Finland 16 21 70 ? 58 .

64% Under 12 months: 80% Response quickly to the increasing labor demand in booming industries Affordable for participants as well as their families ( even fee waive.08% • Most of vocational training is short term:   1-3 month training: 41.)  Types of training: • Long term training (more than 36 months): 0. and recruit later) • People prefer short term training because:   • Long term training attracted more interest from the Gov and foreign organizations 60 .) Training (cont.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.

) Employment after training:  60% graduates found jobs through relatives or relationships  15.7% actively looked for jobs  7.) Training (cont.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.5% got job through employment service agencies • 1/10 graduates are self employed(running their own business given the knowledge gained from the training) • Family relations tend to play the major role in finding jobs 61 .

LABOR DEMAND

Overview of employment: • Most of the employment is created in agriculture • More new jobs are created in Industrial and service sector

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LABOR DEMAND

Patterns of employment in sectors: • Private sector: risky jobs with relatively low wages, unfavorable working conditions and less chance for training and development. Lack: technical staff • Public sector: long term and not pressuring jobs, average wages, benefits, training and development. Problem of “brain drain‟ to foreign invested sector • In foreign invested sector: higher wages, better working conditions, but high pressure, riskier than in public sector. Lack: skilled workers and managers
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Industrial/Sector Structure
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The labor force used is still primarily rural and agricultural (livestock, aquaculture, and forestry) Reduction of share of labor employed in agriculture recently and increase in industry, services Urban: • A very large movement of people out of agriculture into sales and services • Service and industry account for more than 70% of labor force Rural: 80% of people involved in agriculture, although seen slight reduction Demand for technicians and highly skilled workers are high, especially for the export processing zones (EPZs): • Job opening for well trained workers are available at many service centers and head hunting companies. • Head hunting FIEs offer high salaries to talented students during their study at the universities
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67 . MOLISA.Employment structure in the period 1990-2007 Source : the 2001-2005 labour and employment statistics .

3% vs.a.5      Foreign Invested Enterprises (FIEs): • Highest growth rate of GDP among sectors • Capital intensive (oil related production.2% and 9.7%). highly export oriented Workers employed by private manufacturers are at low education levels Share of C/U level in administrative areas is higher than that in productive sector (67. garment or primary processing). Japan: 6. mainly in import substituting industries Most of private companies operate in labor-intensive sectors (textile. 32.2% p.OWNERSHIP  Both labor in the State and non-state sectors have grown rapidly (by 10. Thailand: 6/4.5/3. heavy industry or real estate) 69 . respectively) State sector dwarfs the private sector but much less labor intensive.

000 workers were exported to about 40 countries at regions in 1990s (compared to 300.LABOR EXPORT      90.000 in 2007 Higher quality requirement makes Vietnam labor less attractive – only one third of annual target were achieved High brokering fee and lack of support from the companies who arranged the contracts for laborers 50% of total of Vietnam nationals working abroad are in East Asia. Malaysia.) 70 . and Middle East (Taiwan. South Korea. ..000 during 1980s) 85.

900 Source: Ministry of Labour Invalids and Social affairs (MOLISA).574 1.590 4. 71 .965 13.226 2.249 23 7.700 67.500 27.567 19.782 2002 46.202 19.168 3.910 3.190 2.205 10.750 Others 21.264 4.500 39.144 20.122 1.624 14.447 70.752 3.Number of Vietnamese workers working abroad in labour contracts with definite term Persons 2001 Total South Korea Japan Malaysia Taipei 36.850 2.204 9.191 2003 2004 2005 75.981 37.605 8.779 2.

Labor market trends        Unemployment Underemployment Wage employment Wage trends Child Labor Women labor Integration 72 .

01 7.62 6.86 5.68 4.35 6.15 6.95 5.31 5.23 5.16 6.72 6.03 5.96 5.35 9.92 5.07 6.76 5.71 5.40 6.42 6.03 5.62 4.04 5.95 2.56 6.08 5.50 4.11 5.51 4.74 8.Unemployment rate in 2008 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Total AREAS Red river delta Northeast Northwest North central Coastal central Highland Souteast Cuulong river delta BIG CITIES Hanoi Danang HCMC Dong Nai 5.73 5.25 6.87 6.58 4.46 4.16 6.04 6.43 4.82 5.88 7.02 6.75 6.57 4.72 8.45 5.55 5.60 5.50 2.34 6.82 6.50 7.30 6.35 4.27 5.38 5.47 4.31 5.87 4.85 4.56 5.03 6.96 6.88 5.48 4.73 5.57 6.55 5.95 5.42 4.33 6.15 7.26 6.00 6.20 4.12 Source: GSO data 2009 74 .65 5.89 4.26 6.65 6.83 4.87 7.16 6.14 6.09 6.56 4.40 8.92 7.10 5.49 6.41 5.67 5.18 5.01 6.61 5.16 5.53 5.38 5.19 5.53 5.84 5.89 4.08 7.30 5.54 6.95 6.60 6.13 4.99 5.85 8.52 Sơ bộ 2008 4.52 6.39 6.42 6.78 6.92 6.39 5.73 7.93 5.74 3.42 7.08 5.42 4.28 7.73 6.24 5.90 6.68 5.03 5.64 6.64 4.88 6.44 6.17 4.61 6.34 4.77 2.07 5.11 4.

females. urban: 7. equipment.97% of the country‟s labor force of working age.) • Visible underemployment: employment under 40 hours/week (rural areas: 25. capital 75 .47%.UNEMPLOYMENT (cont)  Different types of unemployment: • Active visible unemployment: unemployed actively seeking jobs (2.02%) • Invisible underemployment: people working with nearly normal hours but their jobs are not the right ones they want • Hidden unemployment: over crowded labor in relation to land.2%..01%) • Passive visible unemployment: unemployed who are not actively seeking jobs even though they are able to work (low education people. urban: 6. rural areas: 2.

students and illegal immigrant returning from the Soviet Union. • Repatriation of “boat people” in 90s • Downsizing the military as part of its reform and modernization program • Average irrigated land per laborer is low (labor surplus in agriculture) (0.000 workers).36 ha in 1986 and 0.3 ha in 2003.. especially in the field of technicians and skilled workers 76 . Western Europe. Germany.8ha) • The current education system is facing difficulties in meeting domestic demand for education and training. regional average: 0.UNEMPLOYMENT (cont)  Reasons for increase in unemployment: • High growth of labor force while lack of laborintensive investment • Vietnamese guest workers (about 200.

relatively higher labor cost.UNEMPLOYMENT (cont)  Reasons for increase in unemployment (cont) • Employees laid out of SOEs due to the reform (about 20% out of the sector) • Lacking (though increasing) in the number of job agencies • Country economic slowdown (labor export. lack of competitiveness)  Reduction in export capacity due to lack of competitiveness  Decreasing in number of foreign direct investment projects  Withdrawal or downsizing of foreign invested enterprises due to unattractive investment environment 77 . FDI decreasing and downsizing. decreasing demand for imports from partner countries.

56% of employed work force   78 . primarily among the younger and the elderly groups “Serious” underemployment is high at 11.UNDER-EMPLOYMENT  Definition: working less than 40 hr/week for all jobs Highest rate of underemployment was found in agriculture.

9 13.03 5. Highlands Rural (%) 7.6 10.32 9.91 7.46 12.09 7.89 Total(%) 7.8 10. Uplands Red River Delta N.66 9.UNDER-EMPLOYMENT Highest rate of underemployment is in Red River delta and Mekong Delta Central Highlands.97 13.03 17.68 13.41 5.56 79 .41 5.38 Urban(%) 9.06 7. South Central.Central Coast C.54 11. and Northern Mountains have lowest levels of underemployment Source: VLSS Region N.78 11. Central Coast S.38 Southeast Mekong delta Total 16.85 8.97 16.

WAGE EMPLOYMENT  The private sector has increased its share of wage employment fastest  Private sector is stronger in the South than other regions   A shift from agriculture to other sectors Services and industries absorb the most labor 80 .

81 .WAGE TRENDS    True wages might be underestimated due to an attitude of “hiding”. over report of working hours Annual increase by 9% (92-07). irregular various incomes. higher in the North and urban areas More correlation between wage and educational level reflects the development of labor market.

150 1.935 10.110 12.0 11 9. 82 .995 1.617 1.046 1.265 2.5 14.0 Source: Surveys on Employment and wage in enterprises in 2005 and 2006 by ILSSA and MOLISA.780 1.9 9.2 -6.Average monthly wage and wage growth rate for period of 2003-2005 2003 Average Wage (000’VND) 2004 Average Wage (000’VND) Per cent of increase 2005 Average Wage (000’VND) Per cent of increase Per cent of increase SOEs Private firms FDI firms 1.1 1.5 1.774 23.1 9.

WOMEN LABOR      An improvement: • Increase 8% of share in NA • 2% among PCs at various levels • Provide loans to 6 million of women The State ensures the right to equality of women with men in all domains of work Adopt policies of encouraging the labor users to create conditions for women laborers to have regular jobs Help the women laborers to effectively develop their professional capacities and harmoniously combine work and family life Tax favorable for the enterprises using most women 83 .

)    The labor user is not allowed to use female labor for heavy or dangerous jobs or jobs which necessitate contact with dangerous substances having harmful effects on the reproductive and child bearing function of the women laborers The labor users must not use women laborers at whatever age for permanent work in the mines or requiring constant immersion in water Discrimination (illegal) terms against women labor: • Not recruit women • Force the women laborers to agree not to marry in several years of employment 84 .WOMEN LABOR (cont.

6 mil in late 90s. 85 .CHILD LABOR     Broad definition of child labor: reported to work in the past 12 months in wage work. farming or self-employed nonfarm activities of the household Age range between 6-14 Not significantly different between boys and girls Child labor reduced from 4.9 mil in early 90s to 3.

12.CHILD LABOR (cont. 16. 17 (urban) Share of children with wage work increased sharply during last decade (13% to 27%) 86 .)     Rural children are about three times as likely to work as urban children 90% of child labor work in agriculture. mostly in rural areas Large jump in child labor force at age 8 (rural).

with WTO member: increase FDI. promote private sector. • Labor structure in sectors shift from agriculture to industry and services .Impact of WTO participation on Market Labor  Opportunities: • Positive impact in economic terms – GDP growth • A no of sectors/industries have benefits thanks to liberalization. for export oriented industries which are labor intensive. esp. thus a shift from state owned enterprises to FIEs and private sector enterprises. more new enterprises). trading activities • More opportunities for employment and income for laborers (reasoning: positive correlation between employment and openness of economy – higher demand for laborers. Also. 87 .

benefits for laborers (lack of regulation/monitoring of government) 88 . labor disciplines.Impact of WTO participation on Market Labor  Challenges: • Increasing gap among laborers: skilled workers will have higher pay. better benefits. team work. Non-formal sector: not assure social security. foreign languages…) • Non-formal sector may increase in scope. unskilled workers more difficult to get jobs. Especially context of VN: capability of VN laborers fall far short of international standards/demands (lack of expertise.

and employment in the sector. agricultural imports can affect domestic products.Impact of WTO participation on Market Labor • Unemployment challenge: agriculture sector (60% of laborers) very backward. uncompetitive – thus with liberalization. • Some industries/enterprises have to restructure to improve competitiveness – thus may lay off laborers • Demands for expertise. Other protected industries also negatively affected. skills of laborers will increase • Stronger movement of laborers to overseas countries – brain drain 89 .

the policies and regulations need to ensure high and sustainable growth in terms of solving employment issues Education innovation is the most important measure to gain long term benefits 90 .Conclusion    Labor supply is reaching peak structure and the transition of the economy has created employment pressures Meanwhile maintained a stable development.

Legal framework: labor policy 91 .

Circulars. 198 articles • Applying to all employees working for individuals or organizations operating in Vietnam • Setting out generally the rights and obligations for both employers and employees.THE GOVERNMENT AND THE LABOR MARKET       Institutions: MOLISA (Ministry of Labor. integration to the region and world economy 92 . quality improvement Reform continued: SOE reform. 1995. followed by provincial Departments of Labor. SMEs promotion. amended Apr 2. 2002 and effective 1/1/2003. Invalids and Social Affairs Labor Code: • Came into effect on Jan 1. labor standards Various instruments of the Code: Decrees. Invalids and Social Affairs) is responsible for regulating the labor market. Decisions National Employment Program by Government Policy of Education and Training: socialization.

THE GOVERNMENT AND THE LABOR MARKET   Employment: • Employees have right to work for any employer. provided they are all notified (A 129) Working conditions: • Working hours: Max 8 hours/day or 48 hours/week (A 68). Layoffs must be reported to the local Department of Labor (A 17) • Highly skilled employees are entitled to hold multiple jobs through integrating labor contracts with many employers. and to either contact the employer directly or recruit through an employment introduction organization (A 16) • Employers are asked to retrain full time employees who lose their jobs due to structural or technological transfer. Max extra time: 4 hours/day or 200 hours/year • Training: businesses are responsible to upgrade professional skills of employees 93 . severance allowance rate is: one month‟s salary for every year of service. In case the employees are laid off.

no less than minimum wages (A 55) Definition of minimum wages (A56) • The rate intended for „the laborer doing the simplest work in normal working conditions” • Meet basic needs and to permit savings to finance some accumulation of human or physical capital Periodically adjusted for changes in living expenses Minimum wages may differ. 94 .WAGE SETTING     Wages: negotiated between employer and employee. depending on the geographical region and the type of industry.

35-45) For SOEs: there are 26 wage ranges and 21 wage grades with the deferential relationship between minimum : average: maximum as much as in 1:1. (USD14 vs. FIEs can apply their own wage scales and brackets but cannot be lower than that applied for domestic ones 95 .06 times.MINIMUM WAGES    Minimum wages vary between Domestic and foreign investment firms.82:7.

hurt export • Deter export-oriented foreign investment • Capital-intensive replacement  Realities: how do the MW levels affect state owned. private and foreign sectors in VN? 96 .MINIMUM WAGES (cont.)  Reasoning: high effective MW tend to reduce employment because: • Increase production costs.

MINIMUM WAGES-DOMESTIC FIRMS    MW represents roughly one forth of average and one third of rural wages Workers with no diploma earn on average more than 3 times the MW The MW is unlikely to present any obstacles to the development of the export-oriented domestic private sector 97 .

MINIMUM WAGES-FIEs   No effect of capital replacement investment among FIEs Low labor cost advantage: • Other countries‟ policies to attract foreign investment • Foreign investors can shift part of their production to more competitive countries easily  Labor costs are not the most concern of FIEs 98 .

and expected 800.000.000 in Oct 2006.SALARY REFORM        Cut state budget subsidy for wide range of administrative and non-production sectors The government could save 20% of annual expenditures MW increased from VND144.000/month in 1999. 450.000 in 1/1/2010 MW rate adjustment implies a general increase in all incomes and expenditures Allow production enterprises more freedom in setting their own MW as determined by productivity performance within the enterprise To ensure sufficient income for a civil servant to support himself and a child of school age 99 To fight corruption . and now 650.

Monthly average income per capita at current prices by residence and by region 1999 WHOLE COUNTRY By residence Urban Rural By region Red River Delta North East North West North Central Coast South Central Coast Central Highlands South East Mekong River Delta 295 517 225 280 210 212 253 345 528 342 2002 356 622 275 353 269 197 235 306 244 620 371 Thous. dongs 2004 2006 484 815 378 488 380 266 317 415 390 833 471 636 1058 506 653 511 373 418 551 522 1065 628 100 .

New income taxes Effective from 1st January 2009 Range 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Taxable income /year (Million.VND) Income <= 60 60< Income <= 120 120 < Income <= 216 216 < Income <= 384 384 < Income <= 624 624 < Income <= 960 960 < Income Taxable income /month (Million-VND) Income <= 5 5< Income <= 10 10 < Income <= 18 18 < Income <= 32 32 < Income <= 52 52 < Income <= 80 80 < Income PIT rate (%) 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 102 .

 103 . Work permits: not exceeding 3 years.Labor for foreign organizations in VN. Foreign employees working in VN  FIE can recruit directly Vietnamese employees or through an employment service agency (previously: could not directly recruit) Work permits required by foreigners working for a full 3 months or more   Total of foreigners not over 3 % of the total employment in a company. and not more than 50 persons. but could be extended.

employer has to pay severance allowance of half of a month‟s salary for each year of employment Most private sector companies hire workers on very short term contracts (most full time workers in the private foot-ware.TERMINATION    Employment can be unilaterally terminated: • Natural disaster forcing the employer to scale down production • The business terminates its operation When terminating contract with a regular worker (working 12 months or more). garment and food processing sectors are in the 6-month to 1-year contract) 104 .

and other labor conditions. (3) Trade union participate in process 105 . Be resolved based on principles: (1) direct negotiation and conciliation.LABOR DISPUTES   Labor dispute about rights and benefits relating to employment. wages. include an individual labor dispute between an employee and an employer. (2) conciliation and arbitration. and a collective labor dispute between a labor collective and an employer. incomes.

LABOR DISPUTES    On the rise? Main reasons: • Employers do not follow the Labor Code • Laborers do not clearly understand the regulations • Lack of Trade Union presence To solve problems: • The employer • The employee • The MOLISA officials: Labor Code should be made more familiar to both employers and employees. Government increase inspections of labor issues and require employers to seriously comply with the Labor 106 Code . Trade union offices be established.

LABOR DISPUTES – COLLECTIVE Peoples’ court Provincial labor arbitration council Labor reconciliation council Laborer group Disputes Direct negotiation Labor User 107 .

LABOR DISPUTES –INDIVIDUAL District People’s Court Labor reconciliation council Individual laborer Disputes Direct negotiation Labor User 108 .

109 .” • People‟s Court decides which strike is lawful or not.Strikes • Strikes:  Laborers have the right to go on strike  Article 174: “strikes are forbidden at businesses of public service or business essential to the national economy or national security an defense”  Article 175: “strikes that are judged to constitute a serious danger to the national economy or to public safety may be postponed or ceased by direct order of the Prime Minister.

There have been more than 1. at least 541 labor strikes were held across the country. More than 20.Strikes  In 2007. 650 strikes in the first 8 month 2008. mostly at foreigninvested companies. mostly at foreign-invested factories and involving an estimated 350.000 Vietnamese workers went on strike demanding a 20% increase to their US$59 monthly salaries at a Taiwanese-owned factory (Nike shoes) in 2008. 80% from FDI South Korea and Taiwan.    110 .000 workers.000 labor strikes in the southern commercial city since 1998.

work-related accidents. independent of the state budget. covering 600. unemployment.000 people (out of a population of 17 million at that time). the Ministry of Labor. 111 . retirement. Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor (VGCL) administered social security issues.SOCIAL SECURITY  - Social security legislation: 1961: first social security system.000-700. occupational disease. death. Funds came mainly from the state Budget 1995: Foundation of Vietnam Social Security organization (managed by the MOLISA): social security fund for employees from various sectors. - - - Social security to take care events of illness. pregnancy. in North Vietnam only. Until 1995.

pregnancy.Separate provisions for female employees       Ensure the equality of women as for men (recruitment.) Assist women to harmonize family and work duties Preferential treatment. maternal leave Maternity leave: 4 months (with full salary payment) Maternity allowances: 1 month of salary 112 .. wage. wage increases. tax reduction for enterprises employing high no. of women laborers textile/garment… Employer prohibited to dismiss women workers for reasons of marriage.

Separate provisions for junior workers  Junior workers: under 18 years old  Employment of under 15-year children: prohibited except in certain cases. in which case need parents/guardian approval Prohibit to employ junior workers in heavy or dangerous work as stipulated in list issued by MOLISA Normal working hours: not exceed 7 hours per day. 42 hours per week   113 .

SOCIAL SECURITY (cont)    Compulsory and voluntary social security • Compulsory for employees with indefinite contracts or definite contracts of 3 months or more • Voluntary for employees with definite contracts less than 3 months or seasonal basis Criteria for pension: 60 (men). entitled to allowance of 100% of salary and additional allowance of 1 month‟s salary 114 . and paid social insurance contribution for 20 years+. On maternity leave. 55(women) years of age. Lower rate if satisfies either of criteria.

SOCIAL SECURITY (cont)

Source of funds: contribution rates are 15% of total wages funds for the employer and 5% of the salary for the employee, assistance from the State with additional sources, profits from the funds. MW, not actual wages be referred for Social Security contribution.
115

SOCIAL SECURITY (cont)
Coverage: - Compulsory for employees of state sector, of state owned enterprises, private enterprises, international organizations, enterprises with FDI, and EPZs. - Coverage rate is very low, mostly focused in state sector and few participate in voluntary scheme. Pension coverage almost universal in state sector (91% civil servants, 93% of SOE employees, in 2003). Active contributions: 86% from state sector, only 14% from private sector. (the law sanction is not high enough to change the firms‟ s behavior). Excluded are especially people who live in rural 116 areas and workers in the informal sector.

TRADE UNION

(A7) The laboring people have the right to found, join and work for the trade union according the trade union law in order to protect their rights and lawful interests (A153) Six months at the latest after a newly created business becomes operational for newly created businesses, the provincial federation of trade unions must set up a provisional trade union organization at the business to represent and protect the rights and interests of the laborers and the collective of laborers (A154) The employer must not prejudice an employee because he has formed, joined, or participated in the activities of a trade union organization. The employer must not apply economic pressures or other measures to interfere with the organization and 117 activities of trade unions.

118 .

Thanks for your attentions! 119 .

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