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VIETNAM LABOR MARKET

Instructor: Duong Manh CUONG Faculty of Economics and Management Hanoi University of Technology Email: cuongdm-fem@mail.hut.edu.vn Tel: 091 201 0566

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COURSE OBJECTIVES

To get information on the labor supply, demand and recent development of the Vietnamese labor market To basically understand the local regulations, policies and other relevant issues To get a deeper understanding of some issues based on in-class case discussions

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COURSE OUTLINE
• Introduction to Vietnam‟s context • Vietnam‟s labor market and recent development • Regulations and policies • Other relevant issues

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000 đồng) for rural 450.74 % 20% (14%) by VN's standards) July 2009.8 years Under-five child mortality rate Life expectancy.19% 26/1000 total population: 70.000 đồng/người/tháng (old criteria 260. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Population.000 đồng/người/tháng (old criteria 200.DEMOGRAPHIC/SOCIAL. data from WB 4 . 1.secondary .tertiary Illiteracy rate (of population age 15+) Percentage of people below poverty line 2008 350.2 mil Population growth. primary (% gross) .School enrollment.) Educational attainments of workforce .000 đồng) for urban 95% 76% 16% 3. (2008 est. 86.

) Form of the state Head of the state Government Head of the government Major opposition parties Socialist Republic (oneparty rule) President Nguyen Minh Triet Communist Party of Vietnam Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung None Government structure Ministry of Labor. Invalids responsible for labor and and Social Affairs social security issues (MOLISA) 5 . POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (cont.DEMOGRAPHIC/SOCIAL.

annual% 2008 6.4 (Billion of US$).services Inflation rate in 2008 Exports in 2008 Imports in 2008 Surplus ($170).1 22.99 39.industry .9 Billion of US$ 80.htm March .state. -17.93% 62.) Real GDP growth.5 Bil USD Source: http://www. $1024 USD ($84. 2009 6 .98 bil USD) 21.agriculture .91 38. 2008 GDP share of sectors. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (cont. % of GDP 2008 .gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4130.DEMOGRAPHIC/SOCIAL.98 bil) Per capita income (1993).23% (GDP $84.

07 & ‘08  2001-05 Average GDP p.8 38.79 6.52 38.38 8.02 Industry & construction 40.23 3.69 10.99 39.1 *: GSO data 2009 7 .97 2006 8.40 41. (%) 2005 Agriculture 21.7 2008* 6.51 in which: Agriculture 3.Economic indicators 2001-05.2  Economic structure by ind.6 8.33 7.24 Services 6.23 3. growth (%) 7.4 10.29 2007 8.08 2007 20 41.a.97 Services 38.01 2006 20. 06.5 3.91 38.84 Industry 10.2 2008 21.

The growth rate of GDP components (%) 8 .

GDP and export growth rate (%) 10 .

Vietnam FDI attraction Year Registered capital (USD mil.) 329 2556 3115 2413 2852 3308 4100 8030 11500 .) 1991 1291 1995 6937 1997 5590 2000 2838 2004 4547 2005 6839 2006 12003 2007 21400 2008 60300 Disbursement (USD mil.

Joining ASEAN Signing BTA with US Joining the WTO Export-Import growth with bilateral/multilateral agreements 12 .

000 6% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 13 4% .000 14% 15.) Disbursement 25.000 5.000 Registered capital FDI sector's contribution to GDP 18% 16% 20.000 12% 10% 8% 10.FDI commitment and disbursement (USD mil.

000 4.) 18.000 6.000 8.000 2.000 12.000 Crude oil Primary Agricultural resourceintensive Labourintensive production Capitalintensive production Machinery and technologyintensive goods other 2000 2005 2006 2007 14 .000 14.Merchandise export by industrial sub-sectors (USD Mil.000 16.000 10.

Source of imports 15 .

increased transparency and accountability • To replace turnover tax with VAT (5-10%) and replaced profit tax with uniform enterprise tax (25%) 16 . APEC. and WTO requirements • Join WTO by Jan. increase ODA disbursements and cooperation • Joined ASEAN. fiscal and financial sector reform • Developed two tier banking system. and foreign banks • Unified exchange rates closer to the marketdetermined rate. broadened system to allow private. moving to conform trade regime to meet AFTA.SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF VIETNAM’S REFORM PROGRAM   Open economic reform • Passed Foreign Investment Law (with several amendments in response to investor concerns) • Normalization of foreign relations with most countries. join venture. and periodically adjusted • Passed organic Budget Law. simplified tax system. 2007 Monetary.

from 3.546 over the past nine years (2000-2008).786 to 1.)   Agricultural and non-state enterprise reform • Households replaced state cooperatives as the basic decision making units in agricultural production • The Land Law established household land use rights and increased security of tenure for farm families • Passed Enterprise Law in 1/1/2000 allowing non-state factories and commercial sector activities • Private firms now contribute nearly 80 percent of manufactured products and over 70 percent of non-oil exports Public administration and state enterprise reform • Major changes in government‟s approach to managing and regulating the economy • State control and intervention greatly reduced in a number of areas • The equitization process cut the number of state-owned enterprises by more than half.SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF VIETNAM’S REFORM PROGRAM (cont. 17 • Increased managerial autonomy of SOE .

SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF VIETNAM’S REFORM PROGRAM (cont. and other social services • Real per capita spending initially fell but has now increased to above previous peaks • Revised Civil Law. education.)  Social policy and organizational reform • Substantially privatized health care. Labor Law (1/1/2003)  Salary reforms: • To be implemented during 2001-2009 • Administrative and non-production sectors are to be the first to undertake salary reforms 18 .

1986-90.a. to 7% in 97-00 Inflation reduced from triple digits to single digits (fr 300% in 1986 to 4 % in 2003 and 22.9 bil in 2008) Health and education indicators have generally improved for the majority of Vietnamese 19 Poverty reduction remarkably . esp 2007.9% in 2008.SOCIO ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER ECONOMIC REFORM (since 1986)         Per capita income growth averaged from around 3% p. 2008 Rising share of government spending to GDP but budget deficits kept at around 2% of GDP Value of exports in 1990s growing at over 25% per annum Shift from major rice importer in the mid-1980s to second largest rice exporter in 1996 ($ 2. FDI flows increased during recent year. Tight management of money supply.

Vietnam introduced a new poverty assessment standard (WB is 1 USD/head/day): 200. • Poverty rate was 29% in 2007 (below national poverty line) 32 .000 VND in income per head per month in rural and 260.LABOR FORCE AND HUMAN RESOURCES (CONT. junior high school enrolment rate 76% and tertiary 16% (2008)  Poverty: • Poverty rate decreased fast (23% of population in 1993 in absolute poverty. but access to high level education still limited (89% of population from age 10 above is literate for female and 94% for male) (Vietnam Living Standard Survey VLSS 2002) • Primary enrolment rate was 95%.000 VND in urban areas.)  Education: • High literacy. down to 13% in 2000 • In 2005.

LABOR FORCE AND HUMAN RESOURCES (CONT. of which    State sectors: 4.) Labor force: • Working age: 15-60 for male. 15-55 for female.8 mil 34 . • 45 million conducting involved in economic activities in 2008.1 mil FDI: 1.1 mil Non state sector: 39.

6 38657.5 FDI Economic stector Agriculture Industry and construction Service (*) Năm 2008: is data at 01/4/2008 700.7 45037.8 9385.9 35 .8 38639.3 39132.6 23810.8 1831.8 8825.9 3974.5 12026.0 44171.4 23624.2 4073.3 11535.8 8192.7 11031.2 4007.Employment in sectors 2006 2007 1000 persons Estimated 2008(*) Total Ownership Sectors SOEs Non state 43347.4 24122.7 1539.

Labour force by occupation (%) 36 .

95 2.52 2007 4.38 5.18 5.08 37 .83 4.11 4.73 2.65 5.42 4.Tỷ lệ thất nghiệp của lao động trong độ tuổi khu vực thành thị Unemployement rates 2006 Total Red river delta Plateau North mountainous areas Central North and Coastal Central areas Highland East areas Culong Delta 4.85 4.03 Ước tính năm 2008 4.13 4.50 2.82 6.49 4.85 4.64 5.31 4.74 3.47 4.

low wages Supply does not match demand in quality: qualifications. low productivity. expertise of laborers still inadequate.Some highlights of labor market  Fast growing supply outnumbers less developed demand (new jobs created still limited) serious and increasing unemployment. shortage of skilled labor  Big gap  38 .

while in rural areas skilled laborers only occupy 13% vs. 45% in urban areas Agriculture is the sector with biggest percentage of employment but has limited number of trained laborers Industry and service sectors have high growth rates but do not create new jobs respectively – thus new entrants still have to look for jobs in agricultural area  imbalance in sector employment allocation 39   .Some highlights of labor market  Trained laborers concentrate in big urban areas.

Some highlights of labor market  Gap between urban and rural laborers: urban laborers have more access to social benefits (housing. inability to access social benefits. lack access to market. low productivity. better employment Gap between formal and informal laborers: laborers in informal sector lack capital. medical services). low income. social security Labor policies not effective and well enforced.    Big challenges: employment and social benefits for laborers 40 .

COURSE OUTLINE • Introduction to Vietnam‟s context • Vietnam‟s labor market and recent development • Regulations and policies • Other relevant issues 41 .

VIETNAM’S LABOR MARKET   Overview of the labor market Supply of labor • Quantity • Quality   Demand for labor Trends and issues 42 .

4. as % of total employment) 45.services Informal employment (% of total) Official unemployment rate 2006. households working in agri sector 4.037 million 57.65% 11. forestry.8% 30% 43 . 2008 Youth unemployment rate (%) (youth: 15-24 years of age) Underemployment (defined as working < 40hrs a week.industry and construction .82%. 2008 . 2007. inc.INDICATORS OF VIETNAM’S LABOR MARKET Labor force (pers.7 % 90%.64%.4 % 24.agriculture.9 % 17. 4.) working pop. fishing . 2008 Employment by industry (%).

7 billion U.vn . there were over 85. Taiwan.000 persons working overseas.) .980 experts and workers to work abroad in the first seven months of 2008 How many foreigners are there in Vietnam and where are they from? Nearly 53000 foreigners from 42 countries. dollars Vietnam sent 50.vnn. Singapore.S. Major sending countries are China. South Korea. Japan (06/2009) 45 Sending countries and number of migrants Source: Statistics office and www. remitted home about 1.Labor Migration Receiving countries and number of migrants How many Vietnamese migrants are there and where do they go to? in 2007.INDICATORS OF VIETNAM’S LABOR MARKET (CONT.

productivity Level of training and skills people bring to work 46 .LABOR SUPPLY  Supply of labor : • Quantitatively determined by:   Size of labor force (number of people in working age-currently working or unemployed) Number of working hours people work each day/week/year • Qualitatively determined by:   Efforts people put on each hour of work.

especially women Estimated further 1.8 mil people entering labor force from 2001 to 2010 Hours of work: Before 2/10/99: 48 working hours per week.LABOR SUPPLY-QUANTITATIVE     Vietnam has a large. after 2/10/99: 40 hours in public sector 47 . young and growing labor force Labor force participation rate: relatively high in Vietnam compared with regional countries.

51112 Midwife 20087 • The number of doctors per 10. 47168 Nurse.3. 23% belongs to villages 48 .LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE  Health conditions: • ~80% of the labor force located in rural areas where infrastructure is underdeveloped • Total number of medical staff (persons): Doctor 42993 Physician.000 people in Vietnam is 6. • More than half of them are in the cities and major provinces. That is 15 and 6.5 times lower than that of the USA and Singapore respectively.

053 11.965 female 25.144.219 35.839.139 63.593.091 urban 7.305.Labor Supply Vietnam labor force (prs) Year 1996 2007 Population aged 15 and above total 47.868 rural 36.082.228.248.793 17.243.882 urban 11.880.346 45.964.531 30.917 Labor force total 36.608 32.341.273 47.757 rural 28.014 male 22.391.424.895. July 2009 49 .026.334  Source: report on Vietnam labor market.620.

5% 2002 51% 30% 16% 3.3% 2004 46% 33% 17% 4.2% No degree & primary school Lower secondary school Upper secondary school Junior College and above  49% 26% 14% 1.0% 2006 44% 33% 19% 4. July 2009 50 .Labor supply  Education structure of working age population 1993 1998 65% 23% 10% 2.8% Source: report on Vietnam labor market.

81 7.51 5.1 7.13 8.77 6.78 7.6 7.7 8.6 7.5 8.9 7.Labor Supply Average years of schooling of working age population 1993        1998 2002 2004 2006 All sample Male Female Urban Rural Other minorities Kinh & Chinese 7. July 2009 51 .43 7.96 6.94 6.05 8.47 7.78 9.02 8.42 7.61 7.30 8.9 8.48 7.85 7.00 4.92 6.18 8.83 7.99  Source: report on Vietnam labor market.0 7.96 7.

)  Health conditions (cont): • Health care establishment is considerably poor providing inadequate services to community. especially in the highland and remote areas • Insufficient government investment in health care services: 1% of GDP in 90s. and 5.3% in 2001-2006. 1456 bill VND in 2006 • Low expertise of medical treatment • Increasing pollution impacts Source: Vietnam Development report 2007: aiming high by World Bank 52 .LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.

Southeast. adaptability. 53 . Central Highlands and the lowest is Mekong River Delta. followed by North Central.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont. creativeness. quick learning ability • Comparatively high enrolment rate • Seven agro-ecological zones: Red River delta is the leader in education level. willingness to overcome difficulties. Northern Uplands.)  Education conditions: • Traditional heritage: hard working culture.

) • Difference between urban and rural areas: higher education level in urban and the gap tends to increase gradually • Women‟s education level is nearly equal to men‟s.2 /7.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.)  Education conditions (cont.7 2007 1/1/3 2007 1/4/10 (Malaysia) Only 27% vocational and technical worker (2007) 54  . • Unreasonable educational distribution: the ratios of university/college per vocational and technical worker has been sharply increased  Gap (VN lacks skilled workers) Year c/u per vocational per technical 1979 1/ 2.1 1997 1/ 1.5/1.

5% 2002 51% 30% 16% 3.3% 2004 46% 33% 17% 4. still low skill  Source: report on Vietnam labor market.2% No degree & primary school Lower secondary school Upper secondary school Junior College and above    49% 26% 14% 1.Labor supply  Education structure of working age population 1993 1998 65% 23% 10% 2.8% Unskilled workers ratio is high Proportion of high skill workers is low Vietnam has abundant workforce. July 2009 55 .0% 2006 44% 33% 19% 4.

4 2004 9.2 4.3 Source: report on Vietnam labor market.1 2.3 2002 8.9 4. July 2009 • More vocational training for skilled workers are needed • Vocational training program has been lauched by the government 56 .0 4.Labor Supply Proportion of workers with skills Year Total Vocational training College and above 1996 11.9 2005 10.4 9.1 4.7 5.0 3.2 4.1 2003 8.4 4.

Labor Supply 57 .

EDUCATION-A COMPARISON Country Vietnam South Korea College/university graduates per 1000 heads 11 52 Singapore Italia Japan Finland 16 21 70 ? 58 .

08% • Most of vocational training is short term:   1-3 month training: 41.) Training (cont.LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.64% Under 12 months: 80% Response quickly to the increasing labor demand in booming industries Affordable for participants as well as their families ( even fee waive. and recruit later) • People prefer short term training because:   • Long term training attracted more interest from the Gov and foreign organizations 60 .)  Types of training: • Long term training (more than 36 months): 0.

LABOR SUPPLY-QUALITATIVE (cont.7% actively looked for jobs  7.5% got job through employment service agencies • 1/10 graduates are self employed(running their own business given the knowledge gained from the training) • Family relations tend to play the major role in finding jobs 61 .) Training (cont.) Employment after training:  60% graduates found jobs through relatives or relationships  15.

LABOR DEMAND

Overview of employment: • Most of the employment is created in agriculture • More new jobs are created in Industrial and service sector

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LABOR DEMAND

Patterns of employment in sectors: • Private sector: risky jobs with relatively low wages, unfavorable working conditions and less chance for training and development. Lack: technical staff • Public sector: long term and not pressuring jobs, average wages, benefits, training and development. Problem of “brain drain‟ to foreign invested sector • In foreign invested sector: higher wages, better working conditions, but high pressure, riskier than in public sector. Lack: skilled workers and managers
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Industrial/Sector Structure
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The labor force used is still primarily rural and agricultural (livestock, aquaculture, and forestry) Reduction of share of labor employed in agriculture recently and increase in industry, services Urban: • A very large movement of people out of agriculture into sales and services • Service and industry account for more than 70% of labor force Rural: 80% of people involved in agriculture, although seen slight reduction Demand for technicians and highly skilled workers are high, especially for the export processing zones (EPZs): • Job opening for well trained workers are available at many service centers and head hunting companies. • Head hunting FIEs offer high salaries to talented students during their study at the universities
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MOLISA.Employment structure in the period 1990-2007 Source : the 2001-2005 labour and employment statistics . 67 .

Japan: 6. highly export oriented Workers employed by private manufacturers are at low education levels Share of C/U level in administrative areas is higher than that in productive sector (67.2% and 9. Thailand: 6/4.OWNERSHIP  Both labor in the State and non-state sectors have grown rapidly (by 10.2% p.7%).3% vs. heavy industry or real estate) 69 .5      Foreign Invested Enterprises (FIEs): • Highest growth rate of GDP among sectors • Capital intensive (oil related production. mainly in import substituting industries Most of private companies operate in labor-intensive sectors (textile. garment or primary processing).5/3. 32.a. respectively) State sector dwarfs the private sector but much less labor intensive.

000 during 1980s) 85.LABOR EXPORT      90. and Middle East (Taiwan.000 workers were exported to about 40 countries at regions in 1990s (compared to 300.000 in 2007 Higher quality requirement makes Vietnam labor less attractive – only one third of annual target were achieved High brokering fee and lack of support from the companies who arranged the contracts for laborers 50% of total of Vietnam nationals working abroad are in East Asia. Malaysia.) 70 .. . South Korea.

850 2.782 2002 46.605 8.191 2003 2004 2005 75.567 19.264 4.226 2.500 27.700 67.202 19.574 1.190 2.981 37.249 23 7.965 13.900 Source: Ministry of Labour Invalids and Social affairs (MOLISA).122 1.624 14.447 70.779 2.910 3.204 9.500 39.750 Others 21.Number of Vietnamese workers working abroad in labour contracts with definite term Persons 2001 Total South Korea Japan Malaysia Taipei 36.144 20.752 3.590 4.205 10.168 3. 71 .

Labor market trends        Unemployment Underemployment Wage employment Wage trends Child Labor Women labor Integration 72 .

42 4.90 6.02 6.61 6.39 6.64 4.53 5.57 4.19 5.58 4.35 4.88 6.42 6.73 5.73 7.99 5.08 7.07 6.40 8.67 5.24 5.49 6.95 5.30 6.96 6.48 4.68 4.03 5.52 Sơ bộ 2008 4.47 4.74 3.87 4.89 4.16 6.01 7.76 5.85 4.43 4.89 4.93 5.04 6.15 7.73 5.62 6.20 4.25 6.92 7.03 5.55 5.08 5.60 5.62 4.73 6.14 6.68 5.54 6.50 2.38 5.13 4.34 6.26 6.00 6.16 6.27 5.57 6.10 5.39 5.52 6.33 6.53 5.72 6.83 4.31 5.87 6.40 6.50 4.34 4.72 8.03 5.74 8.12 Source: GSO data 2009 74 .95 2.65 5.65 6.18 5.35 9.41 5.60 6.56 5.23 5.28 7.51 4.31 5.15 6.07 5.30 5.95 5.85 8.86 5.45 5.92 5.11 5.64 6.26 6.92 6.95 6.88 7.38 5.16 6.71 5.56 4.42 7.50 7.77 2.84 5.Unemployment rate in 2008 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Total AREAS Red river delta Northeast Northwest North central Coastal central Highland Souteast Cuulong river delta BIG CITIES Hanoi Danang HCMC Dong Nai 5.42 6.61 5.87 7.96 5.35 6.56 6.08 5.01 6.44 6.78 6.03 6.46 4.88 5.82 5.11 4.17 4.82 6.04 5.16 5.75 6.55 5.09 6.42 4.

capital 75 .02%) • Invisible underemployment: people working with nearly normal hours but their jobs are not the right ones they want • Hidden unemployment: over crowded labor in relation to land.) • Visible underemployment: employment under 40 hours/week (rural areas: 25.2%.01%) • Passive visible unemployment: unemployed who are not actively seeking jobs even though they are able to work (low education people. urban: 6. urban: 7. equipment.UNEMPLOYMENT (cont)  Different types of unemployment: • Active visible unemployment: unemployed actively seeking jobs (2.97% of the country‟s labor force of working age. rural areas: 2.47%.. females.

• Repatriation of “boat people” in 90s • Downsizing the military as part of its reform and modernization program • Average irrigated land per laborer is low (labor surplus in agriculture) (0.UNEMPLOYMENT (cont)  Reasons for increase in unemployment: • High growth of labor force while lack of laborintensive investment • Vietnamese guest workers (about 200. especially in the field of technicians and skilled workers 76 . Germany.8ha) • The current education system is facing difficulties in meeting domestic demand for education and training. regional average: 0. students and illegal immigrant returning from the Soviet Union.36 ha in 1986 and 0.3 ha in 2003. Western Europe..000 workers).

relatively higher labor cost. decreasing demand for imports from partner countries. lack of competitiveness)  Reduction in export capacity due to lack of competitiveness  Decreasing in number of foreign direct investment projects  Withdrawal or downsizing of foreign invested enterprises due to unattractive investment environment 77 . FDI decreasing and downsizing.UNEMPLOYMENT (cont)  Reasons for increase in unemployment (cont) • Employees laid out of SOEs due to the reform (about 20% out of the sector) • Lacking (though increasing) in the number of job agencies • Country economic slowdown (labor export.

primarily among the younger and the elderly groups “Serious” underemployment is high at 11.UNDER-EMPLOYMENT  Definition: working less than 40 hr/week for all jobs Highest rate of underemployment was found in agriculture.56% of employed work force   78 .

85 8.78 11.UNDER-EMPLOYMENT Highest rate of underemployment is in Red River delta and Mekong Delta Central Highlands.54 11. South Central. and Northern Mountains have lowest levels of underemployment Source: VLSS Region N.89 Total(%) 7.41 5.06 7.66 9.6 10.03 5.91 7.09 7.38 Southeast Mekong delta Total 16.38 Urban(%) 9. Uplands Red River Delta N.32 9.9 13. Highlands Rural (%) 7.Central Coast C.41 5. Central Coast S.97 13.97 16.46 12.56 79 .8 10.68 13.03 17.

WAGE EMPLOYMENT  The private sector has increased its share of wage employment fastest  Private sector is stronger in the South than other regions   A shift from agriculture to other sectors Services and industries absorb the most labor 80 .

WAGE TRENDS    True wages might be underestimated due to an attitude of “hiding”. 81 . irregular various incomes. higher in the North and urban areas More correlation between wage and educational level reflects the development of labor market. over report of working hours Annual increase by 9% (92-07).

780 1.1 9.046 1.5 14.1 1.617 1.110 12.150 1.5 1.Average monthly wage and wage growth rate for period of 2003-2005 2003 Average Wage (000’VND) 2004 Average Wage (000’VND) Per cent of increase 2005 Average Wage (000’VND) Per cent of increase Per cent of increase SOEs Private firms FDI firms 1.9 9.995 1.0 11 9.935 10.265 2. 82 .0 Source: Surveys on Employment and wage in enterprises in 2005 and 2006 by ILSSA and MOLISA.2 -6.774 23.

WOMEN LABOR      An improvement: • Increase 8% of share in NA • 2% among PCs at various levels • Provide loans to 6 million of women The State ensures the right to equality of women with men in all domains of work Adopt policies of encouraging the labor users to create conditions for women laborers to have regular jobs Help the women laborers to effectively develop their professional capacities and harmoniously combine work and family life Tax favorable for the enterprises using most women 83 .

WOMEN LABOR (cont.)    The labor user is not allowed to use female labor for heavy or dangerous jobs or jobs which necessitate contact with dangerous substances having harmful effects on the reproductive and child bearing function of the women laborers The labor users must not use women laborers at whatever age for permanent work in the mines or requiring constant immersion in water Discrimination (illegal) terms against women labor: • Not recruit women • Force the women laborers to agree not to marry in several years of employment 84 .

6 mil in late 90s. farming or self-employed nonfarm activities of the household Age range between 6-14 Not significantly different between boys and girls Child labor reduced from 4.CHILD LABOR     Broad definition of child labor: reported to work in the past 12 months in wage work. 85 .9 mil in early 90s to 3.

16. 17 (urban) Share of children with wage work increased sharply during last decade (13% to 27%) 86 . 12.)     Rural children are about three times as likely to work as urban children 90% of child labor work in agriculture. mostly in rural areas Large jump in child labor force at age 8 (rural).CHILD LABOR (cont.

esp. trading activities • More opportunities for employment and income for laborers (reasoning: positive correlation between employment and openness of economy – higher demand for laborers. for export oriented industries which are labor intensive. 87 . with WTO member: increase FDI. Also. thus a shift from state owned enterprises to FIEs and private sector enterprises. • Labor structure in sectors shift from agriculture to industry and services . promote private sector.Impact of WTO participation on Market Labor  Opportunities: • Positive impact in economic terms – GDP growth • A no of sectors/industries have benefits thanks to liberalization. more new enterprises).

benefits for laborers (lack of regulation/monitoring of government) 88 .Impact of WTO participation on Market Labor  Challenges: • Increasing gap among laborers: skilled workers will have higher pay. Non-formal sector: not assure social security. team work. foreign languages…) • Non-formal sector may increase in scope. labor disciplines. better benefits. Especially context of VN: capability of VN laborers fall far short of international standards/demands (lack of expertise. unskilled workers more difficult to get jobs.

uncompetitive – thus with liberalization. and employment in the sector. • Some industries/enterprises have to restructure to improve competitiveness – thus may lay off laborers • Demands for expertise. skills of laborers will increase • Stronger movement of laborers to overseas countries – brain drain 89 .Impact of WTO participation on Market Labor • Unemployment challenge: agriculture sector (60% of laborers) very backward. agricultural imports can affect domestic products. Other protected industries also negatively affected.

Conclusion    Labor supply is reaching peak structure and the transition of the economy has created employment pressures Meanwhile maintained a stable development. the policies and regulations need to ensure high and sustainable growth in terms of solving employment issues Education innovation is the most important measure to gain long term benefits 90 .

Legal framework: labor policy 91 .

1995. SMEs promotion. Decisions National Employment Program by Government Policy of Education and Training: socialization. 2002 and effective 1/1/2003. Circulars. integration to the region and world economy 92 . Invalids and Social Affairs Labor Code: • Came into effect on Jan 1. Invalids and Social Affairs) is responsible for regulating the labor market. followed by provincial Departments of Labor. labor standards Various instruments of the Code: Decrees.THE GOVERNMENT AND THE LABOR MARKET       Institutions: MOLISA (Ministry of Labor. amended Apr 2. quality improvement Reform continued: SOE reform. 198 articles • Applying to all employees working for individuals or organizations operating in Vietnam • Setting out generally the rights and obligations for both employers and employees.

and to either contact the employer directly or recruit through an employment introduction organization (A 16) • Employers are asked to retrain full time employees who lose their jobs due to structural or technological transfer. severance allowance rate is: one month‟s salary for every year of service.THE GOVERNMENT AND THE LABOR MARKET   Employment: • Employees have right to work for any employer. In case the employees are laid off. Layoffs must be reported to the local Department of Labor (A 17) • Highly skilled employees are entitled to hold multiple jobs through integrating labor contracts with many employers. Max extra time: 4 hours/day or 200 hours/year • Training: businesses are responsible to upgrade professional skills of employees 93 . provided they are all notified (A 129) Working conditions: • Working hours: Max 8 hours/day or 48 hours/week (A 68).

depending on the geographical region and the type of industry.WAGE SETTING     Wages: negotiated between employer and employee. no less than minimum wages (A 55) Definition of minimum wages (A56) • The rate intended for „the laborer doing the simplest work in normal working conditions” • Meet basic needs and to permit savings to finance some accumulation of human or physical capital Periodically adjusted for changes in living expenses Minimum wages may differ. 94 .

(USD14 vs.82:7. FIEs can apply their own wage scales and brackets but cannot be lower than that applied for domestic ones 95 . 35-45) For SOEs: there are 26 wage ranges and 21 wage grades with the deferential relationship between minimum : average: maximum as much as in 1:1.06 times.MINIMUM WAGES    Minimum wages vary between Domestic and foreign investment firms.

MINIMUM WAGES (cont. private and foreign sectors in VN? 96 . hurt export • Deter export-oriented foreign investment • Capital-intensive replacement  Realities: how do the MW levels affect state owned.)  Reasoning: high effective MW tend to reduce employment because: • Increase production costs.

MINIMUM WAGES-DOMESTIC FIRMS    MW represents roughly one forth of average and one third of rural wages Workers with no diploma earn on average more than 3 times the MW The MW is unlikely to present any obstacles to the development of the export-oriented domestic private sector 97 .

MINIMUM WAGES-FIEs   No effect of capital replacement investment among FIEs Low labor cost advantage: • Other countries‟ policies to attract foreign investment • Foreign investors can shift part of their production to more competitive countries easily  Labor costs are not the most concern of FIEs 98 .

450.SALARY REFORM        Cut state budget subsidy for wide range of administrative and non-production sectors The government could save 20% of annual expenditures MW increased from VND144.000.000 in Oct 2006.000 in 1/1/2010 MW rate adjustment implies a general increase in all incomes and expenditures Allow production enterprises more freedom in setting their own MW as determined by productivity performance within the enterprise To ensure sufficient income for a civil servant to support himself and a child of school age 99 To fight corruption . and expected 800. and now 650.000/month in 1999.

Monthly average income per capita at current prices by residence and by region 1999 WHOLE COUNTRY By residence Urban Rural By region Red River Delta North East North West North Central Coast South Central Coast Central Highlands South East Mekong River Delta 295 517 225 280 210 212 253 345 528 342 2002 356 622 275 353 269 197 235 306 244 620 371 Thous. dongs 2004 2006 484 815 378 488 380 266 317 415 390 833 471 636 1058 506 653 511 373 418 551 522 1065 628 100 .

New income taxes Effective from 1st January 2009 Range 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Taxable income /year (Million.VND) Income <= 60 60< Income <= 120 120 < Income <= 216 216 < Income <= 384 384 < Income <= 624 624 < Income <= 960 960 < Income Taxable income /month (Million-VND) Income <= 5 5< Income <= 10 10 < Income <= 18 18 < Income <= 32 32 < Income <= 52 52 < Income <= 80 80 < Income PIT rate (%) 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 102 .

Foreign employees working in VN  FIE can recruit directly Vietnamese employees or through an employment service agency (previously: could not directly recruit) Work permits required by foreigners working for a full 3 months or more   Total of foreigners not over 3 % of the total employment in a company. Work permits: not exceeding 3 years.  103 .Labor for foreign organizations in VN. but could be extended. and not more than 50 persons.

TERMINATION    Employment can be unilaterally terminated: • Natural disaster forcing the employer to scale down production • The business terminates its operation When terminating contract with a regular worker (working 12 months or more). employer has to pay severance allowance of half of a month‟s salary for each year of employment Most private sector companies hire workers on very short term contracts (most full time workers in the private foot-ware. garment and food processing sectors are in the 6-month to 1-year contract) 104 .

LABOR DISPUTES   Labor dispute about rights and benefits relating to employment. and other labor conditions. Be resolved based on principles: (1) direct negotiation and conciliation. wages. and a collective labor dispute between a labor collective and an employer. (3) Trade union participate in process 105 . include an individual labor dispute between an employee and an employer. incomes. (2) conciliation and arbitration.

LABOR DISPUTES    On the rise? Main reasons: • Employers do not follow the Labor Code • Laborers do not clearly understand the regulations • Lack of Trade Union presence To solve problems: • The employer • The employee • The MOLISA officials: Labor Code should be made more familiar to both employers and employees. Government increase inspections of labor issues and require employers to seriously comply with the Labor 106 Code . Trade union offices be established.

LABOR DISPUTES – COLLECTIVE Peoples’ court Provincial labor arbitration council Labor reconciliation council Laborer group Disputes Direct negotiation Labor User 107 .

LABOR DISPUTES –INDIVIDUAL District People’s Court Labor reconciliation council Individual laborer Disputes Direct negotiation Labor User 108 .

Strikes • Strikes:  Laborers have the right to go on strike  Article 174: “strikes are forbidden at businesses of public service or business essential to the national economy or national security an defense”  Article 175: “strikes that are judged to constitute a serious danger to the national economy or to public safety may be postponed or ceased by direct order of the Prime Minister.” • People‟s Court decides which strike is lawful or not. 109 .

   110 .000 workers. mostly at foreign-invested factories and involving an estimated 350. 650 strikes in the first 8 month 2008. mostly at foreigninvested companies. There have been more than 1.Strikes  In 2007. at least 541 labor strikes were held across the country. More than 20. 80% from FDI South Korea and Taiwan.000 Vietnamese workers went on strike demanding a 20% increase to their US$59 monthly salaries at a Taiwanese-owned factory (Nike shoes) in 2008.000 labor strikes in the southern commercial city since 1998.

death. independent of the state budget.SOCIAL SECURITY  - Social security legislation: 1961: first social security system. Until 1995. covering 600.000 people (out of a population of 17 million at that time). in North Vietnam only. Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor (VGCL) administered social security issues. work-related accidents. unemployment. pregnancy. the Ministry of Labor. occupational disease. - - - Social security to take care events of illness. 111 . retirement.000-700. Funds came mainly from the state Budget 1995: Foundation of Vietnam Social Security organization (managed by the MOLISA): social security fund for employees from various sectors.

) Assist women to harmonize family and work duties Preferential treatment.Separate provisions for female employees       Ensure the equality of women as for men (recruitment. wage increases. pregnancy. maternal leave Maternity leave: 4 months (with full salary payment) Maternity allowances: 1 month of salary 112 . wage.. of women laborers textile/garment… Employer prohibited to dismiss women workers for reasons of marriage. tax reduction for enterprises employing high no.

in which case need parents/guardian approval Prohibit to employ junior workers in heavy or dangerous work as stipulated in list issued by MOLISA Normal working hours: not exceed 7 hours per day.Separate provisions for junior workers  Junior workers: under 18 years old  Employment of under 15-year children: prohibited except in certain cases. 42 hours per week   113 .

and paid social insurance contribution for 20 years+. On maternity leave. entitled to allowance of 100% of salary and additional allowance of 1 month‟s salary 114 . Lower rate if satisfies either of criteria.SOCIAL SECURITY (cont)    Compulsory and voluntary social security • Compulsory for employees with indefinite contracts or definite contracts of 3 months or more • Voluntary for employees with definite contracts less than 3 months or seasonal basis Criteria for pension: 60 (men). 55(women) years of age.

SOCIAL SECURITY (cont)

Source of funds: contribution rates are 15% of total wages funds for the employer and 5% of the salary for the employee, assistance from the State with additional sources, profits from the funds. MW, not actual wages be referred for Social Security contribution.
115

SOCIAL SECURITY (cont)
Coverage: - Compulsory for employees of state sector, of state owned enterprises, private enterprises, international organizations, enterprises with FDI, and EPZs. - Coverage rate is very low, mostly focused in state sector and few participate in voluntary scheme. Pension coverage almost universal in state sector (91% civil servants, 93% of SOE employees, in 2003). Active contributions: 86% from state sector, only 14% from private sector. (the law sanction is not high enough to change the firms‟ s behavior). Excluded are especially people who live in rural 116 areas and workers in the informal sector.

TRADE UNION

(A7) The laboring people have the right to found, join and work for the trade union according the trade union law in order to protect their rights and lawful interests (A153) Six months at the latest after a newly created business becomes operational for newly created businesses, the provincial federation of trade unions must set up a provisional trade union organization at the business to represent and protect the rights and interests of the laborers and the collective of laborers (A154) The employer must not prejudice an employee because he has formed, joined, or participated in the activities of a trade union organization. The employer must not apply economic pressures or other measures to interfere with the organization and 117 activities of trade unions.

118 .

Thanks for your attentions! 119 .

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