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IMAT3406

Fuzzy Logic and Knowledge Based Systems (AI)

Introduction to Knowledge Based Systems (KBS)

03/05/2012

Most of the KBS notes kindly provided by Dr. Aladdin Ayesh

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2 Knowledge Representation II Inferencing I (Backward Chaining) Week 17 – 1 (KBS Assignment released and to be submitted by Week 17 – 2 30th of March 2010 ) (KBS coursework : 10%) Week 18 – 1 Inferencing II (Forward Chaining) Week 18 – 2 Knowledge Acquisition I Week 19 – 1 Knowledge Acquisition II Week 19 – 2 Developing KBS (tools and practical issues) Week 20 – 1 KBS Applications Week 20 – 2 Modelling Uncertainty 03/05/2012 Week 27 Revision (FL + KBS) 2 .Lecture Plan for Knowledge Based System Week 15 Introduction to Knowledge Based Systems (KBS) Week 16 – 1 Knowledge Representation I Week 16 .

1990. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. J.Reading List Not compulsory. UK: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.. Allen.  P. 1995. Introduction to Expert Systems. and Y. 1992. Inc. but complementary Knowledge Based Systems E. Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Practice: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Turban. Dean. Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence. Second Edition ed. Jackson.  03/05/2012 3 . Aloimonos.*  T.

03/05/2012 4 . We look at some search algorithms as simple AI system.Introduction In this lecture. We start with identifying the different types of AI: numerical and symbolic. we cover an introduction to KBS.

Topics of Discussion AI Simple AI systems Developing KBS Some famous KBS 03/05/2012 5 .

03/05/2012 6 . therefore. evolving and so on. biology and sociology. In some cases new disciplines emerged such as bio-informatics and cybernetics. AI. relates strongly to fields such as psychology. decision making. which researchers consider intelligent activities. acting.AI Artificial Intelligence is the field of computing that attempts at providing computational models of some human activities. such as learning.

fuzzy logic. Neural nets.AI There are two main streams in developing AI systems: quantitive and qualitative approaches. genetic algorithms are all examples of the quantitive approach. 03/05/2012 7 . because they use quantities in analysing the problems. Quantitive approaches sometimes referred to as numerical approaches.

rules. Logic.AI Qualitative approaches sometimes referred to as symbolic approaches. because they use qualities of the problem to solve the problem. 03/05/2012 8 . lists based systems are examples of qualitative AI systems.

Simple AI systems The simplest view of AI systems is as a search problem solver. It is almost impossible to develop an expert system without implementing some search technique or another to navigate through the problem domain for the solution. which is an essential component of any expert system. Search techniques provide the base for the inference engine. 03/05/2012 9 .

Simple AI systems There are two main types of searches: Conventional searches and heuristic searches. Conventional searches cover the entire domain and eventually find the solution. what is the problem with that? Heuristic searches aim at reducing the domain or covering a selected portion of the problem domain. What is the problem with that? 03/05/2012 10 .

Best first.Simple AI systems Conventional searches include:   Depth first search Breadth first search Heuristic searches include:       Generate and test. Means-end analysis. Problem reduction. Hill climbing. Constraint satisfaction. 03/05/2012 11 .

which you would not usually need to develop if you are using an expert system shell such as CLIPS 03/05/2012 12 .Developing KBS (Please refer to the second lecture and lecture notes part 2) Many KBS’s are symbolic systems. which is usually the result of knowledge acquisition Inference Engine. There are two distinctive parts need to be included in any KBS:   Knowledge representation.

e. CLIPS was created in 1985 and is now widely used throughout the government. For further details including its key features. i. In CLIPS. KBS can be developed as pure rules without the need to define fuzzy sets. we do not need to imply certainty factor as we did in FLS. industry.ghg.html 03/05/2012 13 .. and academia. please see http://www. CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system tool which provides a complete environment for the construction of rule and/or object based expert systems. we also call them exact systems.Developing KBS In KBS.net/clips/WhatIsCLIPS. no deftemplate is required.

Some famous KBS DENDRAL (Late 60s) MYCIN (Mid 1970s) R1/XCON (1980s) 03/05/2012 14 .

DENDRAL had become not only a successful demonstration of the power of rule-based expert systems but also a significant tool for molecular structure analysis. After more than a decade of collaboration among chemists.html) 15 03/05/2012 . geneticists. Although no longer a topic of academic research. including the process by which explanatory hypotheses are discovered or judged adequate.edu/projects/history. GENOA. DENDRAL proposes plausible candidate structures for new or unknown chemical compounds. has been licensed by Stanford University for commercial use. (taken from http://smi-web. Its performance rivals that of human experts for certain classes of organic compounds and has resulted in a number of papers that were published in the chemical literature. Using a plangenerate-test search paradigm and data from mass spectrometry and other sources. and computer scientists.DENDRAL (1965-83) DENDRAL (1965-83): The DENDRAL Project was one of the earliest expert systems. the most recent version of the interactive structure generator. organic chemistry. in use in both academic and industrial research labs.stanford. Another concern was to use AI methodology to understand better some fundamental questions in the philosophy of science. DENDRAL began as an effort to explore the mechanization of scientific reasoning and the formalization of scientific knowledge by working within a specific domain of science.

In addition.html) 03/05/2012 16 . EMYCIN. MYCIN extended the notion that the knowledge base should be separate from the inference engine.edu/projects/history. likelihood and risk) of a conclusion. and can explain its reasoning in detail. the knowledge base was designed for easy augmentation. the MYCIN program incorporated several important AI developments. and to ONCOCIN and ROGET.. its performance equalled that of specialists. PUFF. (taken from http://smiweb. prescribes antimicrobial therapy. or goal-directed.MYCIN (1972-80) MYCIN is an interactive program that diagnoses certain infectious diseases. And because medical diagnosis often involves a degree of uncertainty. and SACON. Since it was designed as a consultant for physicians. control strategy. Although MYCIN was never used routinely by physicians. VM.stanford. GUIDON. Because of the rapid pace of developments in medicine. and its rule-based inference engine was built on a backwardchaining. At the HPP. MYCIN's rules incorporated certainty factors to indicate the importance (i. all described below. MYCIN was given the ability to explain both its line of reasoning and its knowledge.e. The book Rule-Based Expert Sytem: The MYCIN Experiment at the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project describes the decade of research on MYCIN and its descendants. it has substantially influenced other AI research. CENTAUR. In a controlled test. MYCIN led to work in TEIRESIAS.

forward chaining •consists of about 10.000 rules written in OPS5 •Results •quality of solutions similar to or better than human experts •roughly ten times faster (2 vs. 25 minutes) •estimated savings $25 million/year 03/05/2012 17 .R1/XCON (1980s) •One of the first commercially successful expert systems •Application domain: •configuration of minicomputer systems •selection of components arrangement of components into modules and cases •Approach •data-driven.

Developing KBS. 03/05/2012 18 .Conclusion AI systems and search algorithms.

03/05/2012 19 .Next Steps Next …  Knowledge acquisition.

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