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Dipin.M.S Roll No. 9 Reg. No. 89031200 Govt. Polytechnic College, Attingal

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Discovered in Medve Lake in Transylvania in Hungary in late 1900’s A fully functional unit was built in the 1980's by Enreco P/L at Mulka Station in South Australia. The first solar pond in India is Bhav Nagar in Gujarat and the first electricity producing solar pond was in Bhuj in Gujarat

Solar Pond in Bhuj .

 Further development of solar ponds can lead to promote more applications.  .Introduction Solar Ponds are an alternative source of harnessing the sun’s energy.  Solar ponds are sized according to their functionality.  For the proper working it needs a lot of sun light and salt water.

Working Principle  Dissipation of Heat in a normal pond •In a typical fresh water pond when sun light penetrates the water it gets heated and release the heat to the atmosphere .

. Constructional details of a Solar Pond • Sunlight incident on the salt pond. • The pond water become layered.

Working Diagram .

Solar Ponds in India Location Bhav Nagar. Karnataka 1993 400m2 NaCl . Gujarat 1980 1983 1984 1987 1600m2 1600m2 240m2 6000m2 Bittern NaCl NaCl Bittern Masam. Gujarat Pondicherry Year 1971 1980 Area 1200 m2 1000m2 Salt Used Bittern NaCl Bahv Nagar. Kharagpur IISc. Bangalore Bhuj. Gujarat IIT.

Israel Beith Ha’arava. Israel Alice Spring El-paso. USA Power(kW) 150 5000 15 70 Pond Area(m2) 6250 250000 1600 3350 Operational period 1979-1986 1984-1996 1985-1989 1986-still operational .Major Solar Ponds in the World Name/Site Ein Boqck.

El-Paso Solar pond for the production of electricity .

.Management of Solar Ponds  Filling the pond  This technique is developed by Zengrando and it is widely adapted  In this technique saline solution is fed into lower layer of the pond  Maintenance of Brine transparency  Used for the controlling the algal growth inside the pond which affect the brine transparency.

 Top Zone Flushing  Scientist Sherman Lemberger suggested the Top Zone Flushing technique  Salt diffused from lower zone to upper zone results the decrease the salt content if the solar pond  To reduce this fault removing of saline water in the top zone and inject the fresh water to the pond surface .

 Mainly used heat exchanger was Titanium heat exchanger. Heat Extraction  An external tubular heat exchanger for heat extraction from the solar pond. Copper heat exchanger and Plastic heat exchanger  Now a days polypropaline heat exchangers are used instead of other heat exchanger .

Applications Power Production  Hot Water application in Agriculture  Water Purification  Water cooling  .

Water cooling tower .

 .Advantages The approach particularly attractive rural areas in developing country  Very large area collector can be set up for just the cost of the clay or plastic pond liner.  No need of a seperate collector for the thermal storage system  Initial cost is less.

Disadvantage      The evaporated surface water needs to be constantly replaced The accumulating salt crystals have to be removed and which is maintenance expensive Liner leakage solar pond occur Corrosion of material using in a solar pond The main drawback is that they need a large area for large power production .

 .Future Scope Further research is aimed at addressing the problem such as development of membrane ponds  Can be used as a alternative power source in rural area.

 Wide spread adaptation of this technology has not been successful yet  The main drawback of the solar pond is the amount of land they require.  Further development of solar ponds can be a partial answer for the power crises.  . solar ponds are an effective renewable energy source and environmental friendly.Conclusion Overall.  www.Reference Wikipedia     eprints.

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