Παγκοσμιοποίηση, Μέσα Επικοινωνίας και Σεξουαλικό Περιεχόμενο: Νέες ανάγκες για ρυθμιστικό πλαίσιο και έρευνα

Globalisation, Media and Adult/Sexual Content; Challenges to Regulation and Research

Organised by: Hellenic Audiovisual Institute, Greece Centre for International Communications Research, Institute of Communications Studies University of Leeds, UK Faculty of Communications and Mass Media, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and supported by The British Academy

Revisiting mediations of sex: The global industrial complex, policy and knowledge
Αναθεώρηση της διαμεσολάβησης του ‘σεξ’: το παγκόσμιο βιομηχανικό σύμπλεγμα, ρυθμιστικά πλαίσια και γνώση
Dr Katharine Sarikakis Centre for International Communications Research, Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds

numbers αριθμοί &

&

lives ανθρώπινες ζωές

'adult' entertainment industry $60 billion in 2007= Hungary's foreign debt 11,300 hard core titles in the USA in 2002= half Hollywood's revenue of $9 billion in 1999: 66,000 pornographic websites - in 2005: 15 million in 2001 66% of online revenues was pornographic 4.5 pornographic emails/user daily


$US 20 billion trafficking in women and girls 2 million children trafficked annually child pornography is a $US 20 million industry worldwide since 1998 sexual exploitation of children 400% increase 80% of children in pornography production under 10 yrs; consumers’ preference for pre-verbal victims 11 average age of first internet exposure to pornographic images

On revenue...

US UK and Germany= 86% of all online adult entertainment market Porn is the most profitable content genre on the internet revenue from: paid subscriptions,advertisements, sending traffic to other sites, auxiliary services, sale of sexrelated products Creation of new market niches = increasingly brutal and more violent content ‘cultivation’ of consumption behaviours in young people

Online adult content revenue
5000 4500 4000 3500

$US millions

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

US UK Germany Rest of the world Total

2000-2006

...and users

19% of online pornography users are under 18 yrs of age

Largest group 29% ages 35-49 followed by 25-34

ALL classes involved in online pornography usage

Same groups with access to sophisticated technologies and disposable income

Global production and consumption
 

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slave labour: links to prostitution and sex trafficking labourers are not protected socially, economically, culturally or physically today's wages one third of 1988; increasing demand for extreme acts no control over one's imagecopyright issues outsourcing of production new suppliers of women for pornography: Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Russia Synergies between major ‘respectable’ electronics and media companies and pornographic content providers and portals

  

parallel trends in other sectors of the sex trade extremely short career spans market niches: more brutality amateur production mimickingreinforcing industry trends for violent content socialisation of children through pornographic cultures Mainstreaming of pornography through mass media – pornification of everyday cultures in media, fashion, music, speech, aesthetic standards

Regulating or regularising?
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Lack of international oriented legislation Lack of common definition of pornography National regulation focuses on issues of obscenity i.e. sexual explicitness and decency and on harm to minors Historically censorship has been used against arts, information on reproductive rights, health and sexuality Pornographers maintain the right to freedom of expression Attempts to distinguish between 'hard-core' and 'soft' pornography (Germany) and criminalize the consumption of violent content (UK) Lack of legislation that follows the links of the sex tradepornography- human trafficking Lack of legislation that addresses need for protection, working conditions, exploitation, physical and mental health Lack of political will to address the link to popular culture (sexist advertising, gendered hate speech, fashion etc)

Emerging - and existing- issues
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Conditions of socialisation of sense of self, sexuality, gender relations Sexualisation of power relations gender, race, age and violence Conditions of labour and exploitation of human beings through real actsnot just their representation Dehumanisation of disadvantaged social groups (poverty, status, power) through processes of objectification, fragmentation and commodification of physical and mental integrity. Pornographic saturation of public spaces, blurring of public and private through changes in consumption patterns

Media literacy and sexual education absent from school and adult education curricula Questions around human security, dignity and human rights Implications for democratic deliberation and a shifting dimension of the concepts of ‘free will’ and ‘choice’ Questions regarding the ability of the nation state and national legislation to articulate solutions to the problems raised.

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