You are on page 1of 99

CHAPTER 2 : PHYSICAL OPTICS

CHAPTER 2 : PHYSICAL OPTICS


2.0 INTRODUCTION
What is
the nature of light ?
Does it travel as a stream of
particles or actually in a
form of certain types of
waves ?
2.0 INTRODUCTION
Phenomena related to light :
Reflection, Refraction, Interference, Diffraction.








All the phenomena can be explained physically by using a
principle called Huygens Principle which is based
on the so-called wave front.
2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
Interference occurs when
> 2 coherent waves overlap
at a point.

Coherent waves are waves
that have the following
properties :
same frequency
fixed phase difference.
2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
360
o

(2t rad)
0
o

(0 rad)
180
o

(t rad)
WAVE PHASE (measured in
O
or radian)
2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
Condition for interference :
The sources must be coherent.
The superposition principle must be applied.
There are two types of
interference :
Constructive interference.
Destructive interference.

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
The type of interference
depends on a value
called path difference,
AL

It refers to the difference
of distance between two
waves at a point from
the respective sources,
S
1
and S
2
.
2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
Condition for constructive
interference :

Path difference, AL = m
where m = 0, 1, 2,...
(crest-crest or trough-trough).
2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
Condition for destructive
interference :

Path difference, AL = (m+ )
where m = 0, 1, 2,...
(crest-trough).
2.2 INTERFERENCE OF DOUBLE SLITS
2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS
Superposition between light waves
from S
1
and S
2
(coherent sources)
produces interference patterns in
the form of symmetrical bright and
dark stripes (fringes) with the same
thickness.
2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS
Bright and dark fringes order, m :
2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS
Equation for m
th

bright fringe :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS
Equation for m
th

dark fringe :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS
The separation between
successive (consecutive)
bright or dark fringes, Ay
is given by :

Therefore, the change in pattern, Ay depends on :
the wavelength of light, (Ay ).
the distance apart, d of the double slits, (Ay d
-1
).
distance between slits and the screen, D (Ay D).
&
QUESTION 1

In a Youngs double slits experiment, the distance
between the 8
th
order of bright fringes on the two sides
of the centre is 12.5 cm.
If the separation between the slits and screen is 1.5 m
and the wavelength is 550 nm, calculate the slit
separation.

ANSWERS
d = 1.056x10
-4
m
&
QUESTION 2

Monochromatic light of wavelength 550 nm is used in a
double-slits experiment with the slit separation being
0.05 cm.
Calculate the angle between the 5
th
order bright fringe
to the 3
rd
dark fringe.

ANSWERS
Au = 0.157
o

2.3 INTERFERENCE IN THIN FILM
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
PHASE CHANGE UPON REFLECTION
Example 1 :
Wave incidents from less dense medium to denser medium.
Effect :
Phase changed = t rad = 180
o
.
Path difference =
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
PHASE CHANGE UPON REFLECTION
Example 2 :
Wave incidents from denser medium to less dense medium.
Effect :
Phase changed = 0 rad = 0
o
= unchanged.
Path difference = 0 = unchanged.
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
PHASE CHANGE UPON REFLECTION
Example 3 :
Wave incidents onto other medium of the same density.
Effect :
Phase changed = 0 rad = 0
o
= no reflection.
Path difference = 0 = no reflection.
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
A thin film is a layer of transparent material ranging
from fractions of a nano-metre to several micro-metres
in thickness.
Since the thickness of the
film is uniform, then the
pattern produced is either
bright (reflective) or dark
(anti-reflective) only and
not in fringes.

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
The formation of interference
depends on their path difference
in film, AL
film
, ACE which is also
depends on :
the thickness, t of the film.
refractive index, n of the film.
Graphically :
For normal incident, | 0
o
, then cos| 1, thus:
..(i)
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Since n
3
> n
2
> n
1
, then
reflection at point D and C
produces phase difference,
A| of t radian respectively
(equivalents with /2
respectively).
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE
n
1
n
2
n
3
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
The path difference for
constructive interference
(reflective coating) :
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE
n
1
n
2
n
3
..(ii)
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Then, by substituting (ii) into
(i), the equation of
constructive interference
(reflective coating) :
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE
n
1
n
2
n
3
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Note :
m = 0 refers to the occurrence
of constructive interference
where the thickness of the film
is too thin, t 0 m (a layer of
film atoms).

Normally, we take m = 1 to
determine the minimum
thickness of thin film.

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE
n
1
n
2
n
3
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
The path difference for
destructive interference
(anti-reflective coating) :
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE
n
1
n
2
n
3
..(iii)
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Then, by substituting (iii) into
(i), the equation of destructive
interference (anti-reflective
coating) :
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE
n
1
n
2
n
3
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Since n
2
> n
1
, then reflection
at point D produces phase
changed by t radian
(equivalents /2).
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian
n
1
n
2
n
3
However no phase changed at
C since n
2
> n
3
, produces
phase difference, A| of t
radian between point C and D.
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
The path difference for
constructive interference
(reflective coating) :
..(iv)
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian
n
1
n
2
n
3
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Then, by substituting (iv) into
(i), the equation of
constructive interference
(reflective coating) :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian
n
1
n
2
n
3
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
The path difference for
destructive interference
(anti-reflective coating) :
..(v)
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian
n
1
n
2
n
3
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Then, by substituting (v) into
(i), the equation of destructive
interference (anti-reflective
coating) :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian
n
1
n
2
n
3
2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM
Note :
m = 0 refers to the occurrence
of constructive interference
where the thickness of the film
is too thin, t 0 m (a layer of
film atoms).

Normally, we take m = 1 to
determine the minimum
thickness of thin film.

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian
n
1
n
2
n
3
&
QUESTION 1

Light from a sodium lamp with wavelength of 589 nm is
shone normally on a soap film of refractive index 1.40.
If the soap film appeared dark when viewed from the
incident side, determine the minimum thickness of the
soap film.

ANSWERS
t
min
= 21.04 m
2.4 INTERFERENCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
Superposition between the
light waves produces
interference patterns in the
form of bright and dark stripes
with the same thickness
known as interference fringes
and depends on their path
difference, AL.

The path difference depends
on the thickness, t of the air
wedge.
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
Since n
glass
> n
air
, then
reflection at point C produces
phase changed by t radian
(equivalents /2).
However no phase changed at
B since n
air
< n
glass
, produces
phase difference, A| of t
radian between point B and C.
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
The path difference for
constructive interference
(bright fringes) :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
..(vi)
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
Then, by substituting (vi) into
(i), the equation of
constructive interference
(bright fringes) :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
On the other hand, the path
difference for destructive
interference (dark fringes) :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
..(vii)
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
Then, by substituting (vii) into
(i), the equation of destructive
interference (dark fringes) :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
When a spherical surface lens
is put in contact with an
optically flat plate, the circular
fringes, known as Newtons
rings are observed.
The detail explanation for the
formation of Newtons rings is
just the same as the formation
of interference in air wedge.

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
Bright rings :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
Dark rings :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS
At the centre of the rings :
the air thickness, t = 0.
AL = 0.
phase difference = t rad.
anti-reflection.

Therefore, dark spot is
formed.
&
QUESTION 1

An air wedge is illuminated normally with
monochromatic light of wavelength 560 nm. Calculate
the thickness of the wedge at the (a) 5
th
order bright
fringe (b) 8
th
dark fringe.

ANSWERS
(a) t = 1.54 m
(b) (b) t = 1.96 m
&
QUESTION 2

In a Newtons rings set up in air, the 13
th
dark ring has
a diameter of 0.65 cm when monochromatic light of
wavelength 560 nm is used.
Calculate the radius of curvature of the curved surface
of the plano-convex lens used.

ANSWERS
R = 1.45m
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
Diffraction is a phenomenon
refers to the spreading or
bending of light waves over the
geometrical region as they
pass through an obstacle or an
aperture whose the size of
which are comparable to its
wavelength.
Geometrical region
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
The diffraction pattern
consists of a greatest width &
intensity of central bright
fringe (or also known as
central maximum)
surrounded by fringes of
lower intensity and thickness.
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
In the diffraction by a single
slit, the thicknesses of dark
fringe (or also known as
minimum) are much shaper
and narrower than that of
bright fringes.

Therefore, the positions of
minimum can be determined
more accurately.

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
The condition of minimum
of diffraction by a single slit :
where m = 1, 2, 3,
Note :
To calculate the greatest number of orders
observed, then 90
o
.
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
The distance of m
th
order
minimum from central
maximum :
where m = 1, 2, 3,
Note :
The width of central maximum is 2y
1

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT
DIFFERENCES INTERFERENCE-DIFFRACTION PATTERN
&
QUESTION 1

A single slit diffraction pattern is formed on the screen
which is placed 1.35 m from the slit. The width of the
slit is 0.11 mm and the 3
rd
dark band is formed at a
distance of 14.5 mm from the central maximum.
Calculate the wavelength of the light used.

ANSWERS
= 394nm
&
QUESTION 2

A single slit diffraction pattern is obtained on a screen
which is placed at a distance of 30 cm from the slit of
width 7.3 m. The wavelength of the light used is
650 nm.
Calculate the central bright fringe width :
(a) in degree (b) in cm.

ANSWERS
(a) Au = 10.2
o

(b) (b) Ay = 5.34cm
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
A diffraction grating is an
optical device (normally made
of glass plate) which consists
of a great number of narrow-
closely spaced-equidistant-
parallel slits or lines.

It is commonly characterized
by the number of line per
unit length, N.
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
Types of diffraction grating :
Transmission grating
(consisting slits).
Reflection gratings
(consisting ruled fine lines).

A diffraction grating is
mainly used to obtain very
sharp maxima (bright fringes).
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
The condition of
maximum of diffraction
by a diffraction grating :
where m = 1, 2, 3,
Note :
To calculate the greatest
number of orders observed,
then 90
o
.
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
White light actually consists
of 7-colored spectrums which
move with same speed,
c = 3x10
8
m s
-1
but have
different energy (thus, they
have different wavelength,
and frequency, f.
2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
The arrangement of all the
spectrums is as follow :
Purple,
P

Indigo,
I

Blue,
B

Green,
G

Yellow,
Y

Orange,
O

Red,
R


i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
s

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING
Based on the condition :
d sinu
m
= m

Since
R
>
P
, then u
R
> u
P
.

Note :
At the zero
th
order (m = 0) :
all the spectrum diffracted at
u = 0
o
(combinations of all
the spectrums form white
light).
&
QUESTION 1

Calculate the number of line per mm on a diffraction
grating if the 4
th
order maximum is formed at an angle
of 40.0
o
from the central maximum when
monochromatic light of wavelength 489 nm is used.

ANSWERS
N = 328600 line / m
-1

&
QUESTION 2

A laser light with a wavelength of 496 nm is projected
normally upon a diffraction grating with 4.9x10
5
lines
per meter.
(a) How many bright spots can be seen
(b) how can you get the number of bright spots to be
more than in (a).

ANSWERS
(a) 9
(b)
TABLE OF FORMULA

2know more about
distance of m
th
bright fringe
from center
(meter)
number of
bright order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
distant slits-screen
(meter)
slit separation
(meter)
distance of m
th
dark fringe
from center
(meter)
number of
dark order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
distant slits-screen
(meter)
slit separation
(meter)
film thickness
(meter)
number of
constructive order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
film refractive index
(no unit)
film thickness
(meter)
number of
destructive order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
film refractive index
(no unit)
film thickness
(meter)
number of
destructive order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
film refractive index
(no unit)
film thickness
(meter)
number of
destructive order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
film refractive index
(no unit)
air thickness
(meter)
number of
bright order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
air thickness
(meter)
number of
dark order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
slit width
(meter)
number of
dark order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
angle dark fringe-centre
(degree)
distance of m
th
dark fringe
from center
(meter)
number of
dark order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
distant slits-screen
(meter)
slit width
(meter)
slit separation
(meter)
number of
bright order
(no unit)
wavelength
(meter)
angle bright fringe-centre
(degree)
REFLECTION
Law of REFLECTION
Convex MIRROR
Concave MIRROR
REFRACTION
Law of REFRACTION
Convex GLASS
Concave GLASS
Thin LENSES
Image PROPERTIES Ray DIAGRAM
FORMULA
Focal LENGTH
Refractive INDEX