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2.0 INTRODUCTION

What is

the nature of light ?

Does it travel as a stream of

particles or actually in a

form of certain types of

waves ?

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Phenomena related to light :

Reflection, Refraction, Interference, Diffraction.

All the phenomena can be explained physically by using a

principle called Huygens Principle which is based

on the so-called wave front.

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

Interference occurs when

> 2 coherent waves overlap

at a point.

Coherent waves are waves

that have the following

properties :

same frequency

fixed phase difference.

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

360

o

(2t rad)

0

o

(0 rad)

180

o

(t rad)

WAVE PHASE (measured in

O

or radian)

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

Condition for interference :

The sources must be coherent.

The superposition principle must be applied.

There are two types of

interference :

Constructive interference.

Destructive interference.

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

The type of interference

depends on a value

called path difference,

AL

It refers to the difference

of distance between two

waves at a point from

the respective sources,

S

1

and S

2

.

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

Condition for constructive

interference :

Path difference, AL = m

where m = 0, 1, 2,...

(crest-crest or trough-trough).

2.1 CONSTRUCTIVE & DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

Condition for destructive

interference :

Path difference, AL = (m+ )

where m = 0, 1, 2,...

(crest-trough).

2.2 INTERFERENCE OF DOUBLE SLITS

2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS

Superposition between light waves

from S

1

and S

2

(coherent sources)

produces interference patterns in

the form of symmetrical bright and

dark stripes (fringes) with the same

thickness.

2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS

Bright and dark fringes order, m :

2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS

Equation for m

th

bright fringe :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS

Equation for m

th

dark fringe :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.2 INTERFERNCE OF DOUBLE SLITS

The separation between

successive (consecutive)

bright or dark fringes, Ay

is given by :

Therefore, the change in pattern, Ay depends on :

the wavelength of light, (Ay ).

the distance apart, d of the double slits, (Ay d

-1

).

distance between slits and the screen, D (Ay D).

&

QUESTION 1

In a Youngs double slits experiment, the distance

between the 8

th

order of bright fringes on the two sides

of the centre is 12.5 cm.

If the separation between the slits and screen is 1.5 m

and the wavelength is 550 nm, calculate the slit

separation.

ANSWERS

d = 1.056x10

-4

m

&

QUESTION 2

Monochromatic light of wavelength 550 nm is used in a

double-slits experiment with the slit separation being

0.05 cm.

Calculate the angle between the 5

th

order bright fringe

to the 3

rd

dark fringe.

ANSWERS

Au = 0.157

o

2.3 INTERFERENCE IN THIN FILM

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

PHASE CHANGE UPON REFLECTION

Example 1 :

Wave incidents from less dense medium to denser medium.

Effect :

Phase changed = t rad = 180

o

.

Path difference =

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

PHASE CHANGE UPON REFLECTION

Example 2 :

Wave incidents from denser medium to less dense medium.

Effect :

Phase changed = 0 rad = 0

o

= unchanged.

Path difference = 0 = unchanged.

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

PHASE CHANGE UPON REFLECTION

Example 3 :

Wave incidents onto other medium of the same density.

Effect :

Phase changed = 0 rad = 0

o

= no reflection.

Path difference = 0 = no reflection.

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

A thin film is a layer of transparent material ranging

from fractions of a nano-metre to several micro-metres

in thickness.

Since the thickness of the

film is uniform, then the

pattern produced is either

bright (reflective) or dark

(anti-reflective) only and

not in fringes.

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

The formation of interference

depends on their path difference

in film, AL

film

, ACE which is also

depends on :

the thickness, t of the film.

refractive index, n of the film.

Graphically :

For normal incident, | 0

o

, then cos| 1, thus:

..(i)

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Since n

3

> n

2

> n

1

, then

reflection at point D and C

produces phase difference,

A| of t radian respectively

(equivalents with /2

respectively).

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE

n

1

n

2

n

3

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

The path difference for

constructive interference

(reflective coating) :

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE

n

1

n

2

n

3

..(ii)

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Then, by substituting (ii) into

(i), the equation of

constructive interference

(reflective coating) :

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE

n

1

n

2

n

3

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Note :

m = 0 refers to the occurrence

of constructive interference

where the thickness of the film

is too thin, t 0 m (a layer of

film atoms).

Normally, we take m = 1 to

determine the minimum

thickness of thin film.

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE

n

1

n

2

n

3

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

The path difference for

destructive interference

(anti-reflective coating) :

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE

n

1

n

2

n

3

..(iii)

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Then, by substituting (iii) into

(i), the equation of destructive

interference (anti-reflective

coating) :

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH NO PHASE DIFFERENCE

n

1

n

2

n

3

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Since n

2

> n

1

, then reflection

at point D produces phase

changed by t radian

(equivalents /2).

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian

n

1

n

2

n

3

However no phase changed at

C since n

2

> n

3

, produces

phase difference, A| of t

radian between point C and D.

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

The path difference for

constructive interference

(reflective coating) :

..(iv)

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian

n

1

n

2

n

3

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Then, by substituting (iv) into

(i), the equation of

constructive interference

(reflective coating) :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian

n

1

n

2

n

3

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

The path difference for

destructive interference

(anti-reflective coating) :

..(v)

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian

n

1

n

2

n

3

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Then, by substituting (v) into

(i), the equation of destructive

interference (anti-reflective

coating) :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian

n

1

n

2

n

3

2.3 INTERFERNCE IN THIN FILM

Note :

m = 0 refers to the occurrence

of constructive interference

where the thickness of the film

is too thin, t 0 m (a layer of

film atoms).

Normally, we take m = 1 to

determine the minimum

thickness of thin film.

REFLECTED LIGHT WITH PHASE DIFFERENCE t radian

n

1

n

2

n

3

&

QUESTION 1

Light from a sodium lamp with wavelength of 589 nm is

shone normally on a soap film of refractive index 1.40.

If the soap film appeared dark when viewed from the

incident side, determine the minimum thickness of the

soap film.

ANSWERS

t

min

= 21.04 m

2.4 INTERFERENCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

Superposition between the

light waves produces

interference patterns in the

form of bright and dark stripes

with the same thickness

known as interference fringes

and depends on their path

difference, AL.

The path difference depends

on the thickness, t of the air

wedge.

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

Since n

glass

> n

air

, then

reflection at point C produces

phase changed by t radian

(equivalents /2).

However no phase changed at

B since n

air

< n

glass

, produces

phase difference, A| of t

radian between point B and C.

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

The path difference for

constructive interference

(bright fringes) :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

..(vi)

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

Then, by substituting (vi) into

(i), the equation of

constructive interference

(bright fringes) :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

On the other hand, the path

difference for destructive

interference (dark fringes) :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

..(vii)

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

Then, by substituting (vii) into

(i), the equation of destructive

interference (dark fringes) :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

When a spherical surface lens

is put in contact with an

optically flat plate, the circular

fringes, known as Newtons

rings are observed.

The detail explanation for the

formation of Newtons rings is

just the same as the formation

of interference in air wedge.

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

Bright rings :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

Dark rings :

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

2.4 INTERFERNCE IN WOODEN WEDGE & NEWTONS RINGS

At the centre of the rings :

the air thickness, t = 0.

AL = 0.

phase difference = t rad.

anti-reflection.

Therefore, dark spot is

formed.

&

QUESTION 1

An air wedge is illuminated normally with

monochromatic light of wavelength 560 nm. Calculate

the thickness of the wedge at the (a) 5

th

order bright

fringe (b) 8

th

dark fringe.

ANSWERS

(a) t = 1.54 m

(b) (b) t = 1.96 m

&

QUESTION 2

In a Newtons rings set up in air, the 13

th

dark ring has

a diameter of 0.65 cm when monochromatic light of

wavelength 560 nm is used.

Calculate the radius of curvature of the curved surface

of the plano-convex lens used.

ANSWERS

R = 1.45m

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

Diffraction is a phenomenon

refers to the spreading or

bending of light waves over the

geometrical region as they

pass through an obstacle or an

aperture whose the size of

which are comparable to its

wavelength.

Geometrical region

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

The diffraction pattern

consists of a greatest width &

intensity of central bright

fringe (or also known as

central maximum)

surrounded by fringes of

lower intensity and thickness.

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

In the diffraction by a single

slit, the thicknesses of dark

fringe (or also known as

minimum) are much shaper

and narrower than that of

bright fringes.

Therefore, the positions of

minimum can be determined

more accurately.

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

The condition of minimum

of diffraction by a single slit :

where m = 1, 2, 3,

Note :

To calculate the greatest number of orders

observed, then 90

o

.

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

The distance of m

th

order

minimum from central

maximum :

where m = 1, 2, 3,

Note :

The width of central maximum is 2y

1

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

2.5 DIFFRACTION BY A SINGLE SLIT

DIFFERENCES INTERFERENCE-DIFFRACTION PATTERN

&

QUESTION 1

A single slit diffraction pattern is formed on the screen

which is placed 1.35 m from the slit. The width of the

slit is 0.11 mm and the 3

rd

dark band is formed at a

distance of 14.5 mm from the central maximum.

Calculate the wavelength of the light used.

ANSWERS

= 394nm

&

QUESTION 2

A single slit diffraction pattern is obtained on a screen

which is placed at a distance of 30 cm from the slit of

width 7.3 m. The wavelength of the light used is

650 nm.

Calculate the central bright fringe width :

(a) in degree (b) in cm.

ANSWERS

(a) Au = 10.2

o

(b) (b) Ay = 5.34cm

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

A diffraction grating is an

optical device (normally made

of glass plate) which consists

of a great number of narrow-

closely spaced-equidistant-

parallel slits or lines.

It is commonly characterized

by the number of line per

unit length, N.

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

Types of diffraction grating :

Transmission grating

(consisting slits).

Reflection gratings

(consisting ruled fine lines).

A diffraction grating is

mainly used to obtain very

sharp maxima (bright fringes).

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

The condition of

maximum of diffraction

by a diffraction grating :

where m = 1, 2, 3,

Note :

To calculate the greatest

number of orders observed,

then 90

o

.

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

White light actually consists

of 7-colored spectrums which

move with same speed,

c = 3x10

8

m s

-1

but have

different energy (thus, they

have different wavelength,

and frequency, f.

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

The arrangement of all the

spectrums is as follow :

Purple,

P

Indigo,

I

Blue,

B

Green,

G

Yellow,

Y

Orange,

O

Red,

R

i

n

c

r

e

a

s

e

s

2.6 DIFFRACTION GRATING

Based on the condition :

d sinu

m

= m

Since

R

>

P

, then u

R

> u

P

.

Note :

At the zero

th

order (m = 0) :

all the spectrum diffracted at

u = 0

o

(combinations of all

the spectrums form white

light).

&

QUESTION 1

Calculate the number of line per mm on a diffraction

grating if the 4

th

order maximum is formed at an angle

of 40.0

o

from the central maximum when

monochromatic light of wavelength 489 nm is used.

ANSWERS

N = 328600 line / m

-1

&

QUESTION 2

A laser light with a wavelength of 496 nm is projected

normally upon a diffraction grating with 4.9x10

5

lines

per meter.

(a) How many bright spots can be seen

(b) how can you get the number of bright spots to be

more than in (a).

ANSWERS

(a) 9

(b)

TABLE OF FORMULA

2know more about

distance of m

th

bright fringe

from center

(meter)

number of

bright order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

distant slits-screen

(meter)

slit separation

(meter)

distance of m

th

dark fringe

from center

(meter)

number of

dark order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

distant slits-screen

(meter)

slit separation

(meter)

film thickness

(meter)

number of

constructive order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

film refractive index

(no unit)

film thickness

(meter)

number of

destructive order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

film refractive index

(no unit)

film thickness

(meter)

number of

destructive order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

film refractive index

(no unit)

film thickness

(meter)

number of

destructive order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

film refractive index

(no unit)

air thickness

(meter)

number of

bright order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

air thickness

(meter)

number of

dark order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

slit width

(meter)

number of

dark order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

angle dark fringe-centre

(degree)

distance of m

th

dark fringe

from center

(meter)

number of

dark order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

distant slits-screen

(meter)

slit width

(meter)

slit separation

(meter)

number of

bright order

(no unit)

wavelength

(meter)

angle bright fringe-centre

(degree)

REFLECTION

Law of REFLECTION

Convex MIRROR

Concave MIRROR

REFRACTION

Law of REFRACTION

Convex GLASS

Concave GLASS

Thin LENSES

Image PROPERTIES Ray DIAGRAM

FORMULA

Focal LENGTH

Refractive INDEX

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