# Motion in One Dimension

By :

x x f xi
That is displacement or change in position. When xf is a final position and xi is an initial position. Velocity.1
Distance is the length of the path followed by a particle..Position..
……. and Speed
Position is the location of the object with respect to a chosen reference point that we can consider to the origin of a coordinate system.
.

Average Velocity
The average velocity Vx of a particle is defined as the particle’s displacement x divided by the time interval tduring which that displacement occurs:
x vx t
…………2
Which the subscript x indicates motion along x axis.
.

3
Its units also same as velocity
.Average Speed
The average speed of a particle.. a scalar quantity is defined as the total distance traveled divided by the total time interval required to travel that distance:
total _ distnce Average speed = total _ time
…….

.Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
The instantaneous velocity vx equals the limiting value of the ratio x / t as t approaches zero:
x vx lim t 0 t
Or
………….4
x dx v x lim dt t 0 t
……….5
.

Instantaneous Speed
Instantaneous speed of a particle is defined as the magnitude of its instantaneous velocity.
.

6
The SI unit of acceleration is meters per second square (m/s2)
.Acceleration
The average acceleration a x of the particle is defined as the change in velocity v xdivided by the time interval t during which that change occurs:
vx vxf vxi ax t t f ti
………….

7
dvx d dx d x ax ( ) 2 dt dt dt dt
2
…..8
..Instantaneous Acceleration
The instantaneous acceleration was defined as the limit of the average acceleration as t approaches zero.
vx dvx a x lim dt t o t
Or
…….

and the velocity changes at the same rate throughout the motion. When this case.
. the average acceleration ax over any time interval is numerically equal to the instantaneous axacceleration at any instant within the interval.One Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
A very common and simple type of onedimensional motion is that in which the acceleration is constant.

Equation 1 (Motion in One Dimension)
If we replace a x by ax in the equation of average acceleration and take t1 = 0 and tf to be any later time t.9
v xf v xi a x t
(For constant ax )
. we find that
Or
ax
vxf vxi t 0
………..

Because velocity at constant acceleration varies in linearly in time according to the equation before. we can express the average velocity in any time intervals as the arithmetic mean of the initial velocity vxf :
vx
v xi v xf 2
……………………10
(For constant ax)
.Equation 2
When the acceleration is constant. the graph of acceleration versus time is a straight line having a slope of zero.

.Note for the equation
This expression for average velocity applies only situations in which the acceleration is constant.

Recalling that x in Equation 2 represents xf – xi .Equation 3
We can now use Equation 1. we find
1 x f xi vt (vxi vxf )t 2
1 x f xi (vxi vxf )t 2
(For constant ax)
…………. and recognizing that t t f t j t 0 t .11
. 2 and 10 to obtain an object as a function of time.

.Note for the equation
This equation provides the final position of the particle at time t in term of the initial velocities.

Equation 4
We can obtain another useful expression for the position of a particle moving with constant acceleration by substituting Equation 9 into Equation 11.
1 x f xi (vxi vxf )t 2
1 2 x f xi vxit axt …………12 2
(For constant ax)
.

.Note for the Equation
This equation provides the final position of the particle at time t in terms of the initial velocity and the acceleration.

13
. 2 2
vxf vxi vxf vxi 1 x f xi (vxi vxf )( ) 2 ax 2a x
2 2
vxf vxi 2ax ( x f xi )
……….Equation 5
Finally. we can obtain an expression for the final velocity that does not contain time as a variable by substituting the value of the t from the Equation 9 into Equation 11.

Note for the Equation
This equation provides the final velocity in terms of the acceleration and the displacement of the particle.
.

its velocity is constant and its position changes linearly with time.
.For motion at zero acceleration
We see from Equation 9 and 12 that
vxf vxi vx x f xi vxt
When ax = 0 That is when a of a particle is zero.

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