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Click to edit Master subtitle style By Prof. Dr. Safinaz Safwat Prof. Dr. Shefaa El Sawy 2009- 2010


Characteristics of the Nucleus

Largest organelle in

the cell


compartment that stores the genetic information in all eukaryotic cells.

Location of

assembly of ribosomal subunits

1. Nearly all of the DNA

Characteristics of the Nucleus

The nucleus does

NOT produce proteins; they are imported into the nucleus from the cytoplasm.

The nucleus directs

the process of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm by informational

Characters of nucleus



It usually resides in the center of the cell, and its shape often mimics the shape of the cell

Sit It usually resides in the center e

of the cell


It may be peripheral or basally situated


Sha Usually spherical pe

but can be


shape of

Usually spherical but can be

Spindle-shaped fibroblast nuclei

Lobulated nuclei of white blood cells (neutrophils)

Numb The number of nuclei present in a cell can assist in er identifying the cell or tissue.
Usually only one nucleus per cell

but there are exceptions

Osteoclasts (O) are


No nuclei

are present in red blood cells

Muscle fiber is multinucleated

Liver cell is binucleated


Components of the Nucleus

Nuclear envelope




Components of the Nucleus

1- Nuclear Envelope formed by two lipid membranes 2- Chromatin both euchromatin and heterochromatin 3- Nucleolus
non-membranous, spherical, intranuclear structure

Components of the Nucleus - colloidal protein solution 4- Nucleoplasm

enclosed by the nucleus. Its also known as the nuclear sap or matrix.


provides a medium for the rapid diffusion of metabolites and for the movement of different kinds of RNA

Nuclear envelope


Act as a barrier that separate the content of the nucleus from the cytoplasm sequestration of immature RNAs containing noncoding intervening sequences

Presents in an interphase cell & disintegrates durin cell division


Nuclear Envelope
3 - Control movement of proteins between the nucleus & the cytoplasm (via nuclear pore) this leads to regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. 4- It provides the structural framework of the nucleus 5- It also assists in localizing location of Nucleus the chromatin
Nuclear Pore


Nuclear Envelope Components

It has a complex structure consisting of:
1. 2. 3.

Two concentric lipid bilayers (nuclear membranes) An underlying nuclear lamina Nuclear pore complexes.


Nuclear Envelope Components

Nuclear Envelope (NE) is formed by two parallel membranes that surround the nucleus
inner membrane outer membrane

These membranes are separated by the perinuclear cisterna and are fused at the

Nuclear Envelope Components

Note nuclear pores (arrows) & bi-layered nuclear envelope


Faces the cytoplasm Cytoplasmic

Outer Nuclear Membrane

surface possesses ribosomes as the outer nuclear membrane is continuous with rER membrane.
The perinuclear

cistern is continuous with the cisternae of the rER.

The ribosomes

synthesize the

Inner Nuclear Membrane

It is supported by a rigid network of intermedaiate filaments; lamins. The nuclear lamina
It is a fibrous

meshwork that provides structural support to the nucleus.

Underlies the inner

nuclear membrane

The nuclear lamins interact with chromosome s so it infuence chromosomal distribution and function within the nucleus

Lamins disassembled during mitosis and assembled when mitosis end.

Nuclear Pore within the nuclear envelope

Nuclear pores are

interruptions in the nuclear envelope where the outer and inner nuclear membranes fuse.
There number

varies from cell to other according of activity of the cell (3000-5000)

The nuclear pore is surrounded by nonmembranous structures (glycoproteins) embedded in its rim. These structures and the pore are called the nuclear pore complex


- It is composed

of three ring-like arrays of proteins stacked on top of each other:

1 - Cytoplasmic ring:
located on the

rim of the cytoplasmic aspect of the nuclear pore.

It possesses

cytoplasmic filaments that

2- The spoke ring (middle ring):

formed of eight

similar units that project into the lumen of the nuclear pore as well as into the perinuclear cistern.

It anchors the glycoprotein components of the nuclear pore complex into the rim of the nuclear

3- Nuclear ring:
located on the rim

of the nucleoplasmic aspect of the nuclear pore.

A filamentous basket-like structure, the nuclear basket, appears to be suspended from the nuclear ring and protruding into the nucleoplasm.

Depending on the

size of the molecules, molecules Transport travel through NPC by 2 mechanisms

across the nuclear pore complex