Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Menghuraikankan

prinsip konstruktivisme

dan inkuiri 2. Menghuraikan rasional perlunya kepada kesinambungan, keturutan dan integrasi unit-unit pengajaran 3. Mengenal pasti prinsip pengajaran berasaskan projek 4. Mengenalpasti prinsip pengajaran berasaskan masalah 5. Mengenalpasti prinsip pengajaran berasaskan kajian kes



prinsip konstruktivisme dan inkuiri


 An approach to teaching based on research

about how people learn. Each individual constructs knowledge rather than receiving it from others (Mc Brian & Brandt, 1997).  They are constructing their own knowledge by testing ideas and approaches based on their prior knowledge and experience, applying these to a new situation and integrating the new knowledge gained with pre-existing intellectual constructs (Briner, 1999).


WHAT IS C0NSTRUCTIVISM?  Constructivism refers to the teaching approach in which students construct their own knowledge and the meaning of scientific concepts through appropriate activities which are planned to achieve those goal


WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM? Al Guenther (a well-known science teacher) “ … You cannot hand over a concept to a student and expect him to understand it. He has to build the concept slowly before he can understand … ” 6 6 .

How to relate the followings?  Prior knowledge/experience  Pre-existing knowledge  New knowledge  Constructs knowledge or understandings Effective approach to learn science is to do science 7 7 .

Ask questions (to see how children may have previously construct information related to the topic 8 .WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM? The primary job of teacher : enable children to find and make their own connections that result in valid internalized meaning unique to each child. How does the teacher do it ? 1.

Interact to each child to see how she is constructing the new information 9 .WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM? 2. Lead the children through exploratory activities that enable them to investigate on their own and come to their own conclusions as to what is happening 3.

Helps children formulate conclusion by aiding each child in re-constructing the information in ways that both valid and meaningful to that child.WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM? 4. 5. The learning of science is a process of construction and reconstruction of personal theories previously held 10 .

WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM?  6. It is a process of continuing refining existing knowledge and constructing concepts in intricate organized networks that are unique to each child and provide explanatory and predictive power 11 .

The characteristic of constructivist learning activities  Active engagement  Inquiry  Problem solving  Collaboration with others 12 .

inquiry is to find something out.WHAT IS INQUIRY?  In general. or knowledge.  Centered around the desire to know more  Human beings are always been inquisitive for survival 13 . to find information.  By asking the right question. to seek the truth.

WHAT IS INQUIRY?  Inquiry is also a key tool in constructivism.  Inquiry-based learning can be achieved by ensuring  that they are incorporated early in your planning  guiding students toward questions 14 .

15 .WHAT IS INQUIRY?  Students are active in classroom  Students must have skills and attitudes to seek solutions the process of inquiry  Every individual have to carry out  During inquiry we used all our senses.

16 .WHAT IS INQUIRY?  Effective inquiry is a complex process which involves individuals attempting to convert information and data into a useful knowledge.

WHAT IS INQUIRY?  The way teachers ask questions during inquiry revolve around :     Context (related to daily problem) Framework (within subject’s content) Focus (open/close) Different levels of questions (Bloom taxonomy) 17 .

 So students must understand ways to get and to make senses of the data 18 .Important facts regarding inquiry  Knowledge are always changing  Information must be readily available.

Important facts regarding inquiry  Learning is NOT about accumulating data and information  BUT about the generation of useful and applicable knowledge  About the construction of understanding of the worlds 19 .

but everyone can better develop their inquiring skills 20 .Important facts regarding inquiry  Inquiry implies a "need or want to know"  No one can learn everything.

Menghuraikan rasional perlunya kepada kesinambungan. keturutan dan integrasi unit-unit pengajaran 21 .

22 . keturutan dan integrasi unit-unit pengajaran 1) Kesinambungan (continuity)antara setiap satu unit pengajaran dengan unit pengajaran yang seterusnya akan melancarkan proses pembelajaran.Menghuraikan rasional perlunya kepada kesinambungan. 2) Keturutan (sequence) antara satu unit pengajaran dengan unit yang lain akan memudahkan perkembangan sesuatu konsep/teori. 3) Integrasi antara unit-unit pengajaran akan memberi gambaran yang jelas tentang sesuatu pelajaran. 4) Kemampuan pelajar mengintegrasikan kesemua tajuk pelajaran menunjukkan kemampuan pelajar mensintesis ilmu yang 22 dipelajari.

23 23 .MEMBINA SIRI PENGAJARAN:  Guru mesti menguasai bidang kandungan pelajarannya.  Mengetahui yang mana konsep asas yang perlu dipelajari terlebih dahulu sebelum mempelajari konsep-konsep yang lain.  Menunjukcara serta membimbing pelajar mensintesis sesuatu topik pengajaran.

   24 .Mengenal pasti prinsip pengajaran berasaskan projek  Project Individual or group Requires a period of time Outcome is a report and an artifact/other forms to be presented. time management and independent learning.  Promotes the development of problem-solving skills.

Science Project  Science project are learning activities that require many hours of student involvement  They take place over many weeks and even months 25 .

Science Project Some science projects reflect “true” inquiry whereby students:      identify a topic to study propose questions to be answered designate procedures for carrying out a project gather information and data present result and form the conclusion 26 .

Science Project  These projects entail a great deal of efforts on the part of students as well as guidance from the teacher and parents A science project can be undertaken:      Individually Pair of students Group of students or By entire class 27 .

Science Project  A project:   stimulates enormous interest in science provides students with incentives to study the problem in depth and to communicate their findings 28 .

This event encourages all student to get involved in inquiry and to design products 29 .Gives students an opportunity to pursue investigation that they would not ordinarily be able to carry out during regular science class period because of limitations on equipment. space and time .Science Project .

Categories and points that often used to judge science project  Creativity  Investigation procedure  Understanding of the topic  Quality of the display  Oral presentation 30 .

Science Project  Science teachers should help students learn about the content of the investigation before they undertake setting up their experiment  Process without content can become meaningless activity 31 .

Mengenalpasti prinsip pengajaran berasaskan masalah  Essential features of Problem-based Learning (PBL)  Students take responsibility and plan their own learning  A problem is the starting point of learning new knowledge  Teacher’s role is to facilitate students’ thinking to achieve the learning outcomes 32 .

Essential features of Problem-based Learning (PBL)  Students engage actively in collaborative learning  Students engage in reflective thinking  Students learn through a problem-solving process 33 .

PBL Process  Stage  Stage  Stage  Stage  Stage  Stage  Stage 1 – Group/Climate Setting 2 – Problem Identification 3 – Idea generation 4 – Learning Issues 5 – Self-Directed learning 6 – Synthesis and Application 7 – Reflection and Feedback 34 .

Stage 1 : Group setting  Members introduce themselves to each other  Set ground rules  Work roles of students and facilitator 35 .

Stage 2 – Problem identification  Students encounter a problem  In group. identify and clarify the problem  Ask questions about the problem  List out the facts of the problem 36 .

Stage 3 – Idea generation  Generate ideas to help them understand the problem  Organize ideas and prior knowledge related to the problem  Define broad nature of the problem 37 .

Stage 4 – Learning Issues  Branch out ideas into learning issues and actions plan  Learning issues – aspects of the problem that they are unable to understand  Define what is known or unknown  Divide work to find about the learning issues 38 .

Stage 5 – Self-directed learning  Seek and learning about the learning issues (Gather information)  In group or individually after dividing responsibilities  Summarize the relevant information 39 .

Stage 6 – Synthesis and Application  Explore all learning issues from previous sessions  Put together all “findings”  Integrate new knowledge into context of the problem  Summarize and make connections  Refine and define new findings 40 .

Stage 7  Reflect of self performance  Provide feedback on group on     Group functioning Problem solving process Knowledge learnt Facilitator’s contribution 41 .

The FILA Chart FACTS (Stage2) IDEAS (Stage3) LEARNING ISSUES (Stage 4) ACTION PLAN (Stage 5) 42 .

Purpose of the FILA chart  A thinking tool as a scaffolding to develop students thinking during PBL process  Facilitate students during PBL  Monitor the PBL process/activities 43 .

Facts  Extracted from the problem scenario  Not to be confused with opinions. judgments or unclear information  If unclear. must clarify in Action Plan column (ask client)  Group facts according to theme involved 44 . assumptions.

effects.Ideas  Possible causes. evolved or removed during self-directed learning. ideas and solutions on how to solve given problem  Suggested or topic to read up  Based on facts identified and capture in the FACTS column  Accept without judgement  Can be modified. research or action taken  Students’ prior knowledge 45 .

Learning issues  Should be phrased as questions  Answers should contribute to the construction of knowledge that solve problem  Anchored/spin off from idea/ideas  Related to the syllabus (learning outcomes)  Can be modified  Additional learning issues can also be included later  Decide which group member who will be responsible to the respective learning issues 46 .

visit accident. conduct. investigate. interview school. read books. read. get police report.Action plan  Are actions to be carried out by students eg. refer  Further questions that needs clarification for better understanding of the problem  Research resources  Must be anchored or be a spin off from idea/ideas 47 . interview. principal sites  Browse internet. visit library etc  Use action VERB – check. speak to client.

a concern. an opportunity. a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization 48 .Mengenalpasti prinsip pengajaran berasaskan kajian kes  Case Study  A narrative of actual state of affairs involving a decision.

Types of Case Studies  Exploratory  Critical Instance  Programme Implementation Case  Programme Effects  Cumulative Case 49 .

Pedagogy of case studies  Motivation to learn theory  Application of theory  Use of evidence  Limitation of theory 50 .

Motivation to learn theory  Students are challenged to solve the problem  Students are motivated to learn theory  They need tools for solving the assigned problem 51 .

Application of theory  The case method requires students to identify the theory that best addresses the problem under investigation  The case method focuses on application but lecture method focuses on theory 52 .

Use of evidence  Students are often required to develop an ability to use quantitative evidence  Case studies require students to manipulate. represent and comment on quantitative evidence in order to solve the problem 53 .

Limitation of theory  The case method provides an effective and structured approach to the development of students’ cognitive skills from low skill levels to high skill levels  The case method forces students to be challenged with the broader effect of social and political context on making decisions 54 .

Case Studies Solutions  Different from normal homework design  Often more than one answer – depends on assumptions and problem definition  Time is well spent – confident in a decision-making position – parallels to real-world situations 55 .

Nik Azmah binti Nik Yusuff FPPM UPSI 56 .THANK YOU Dr.

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