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Turbocharging

Turbocharging Internal Combustion Engine

Turbocharging

Outline
Turbocharger Basics Effects of Turbocharging on Engine Performance

Charge air Cooling


Turbocharger Matching Turbocharger Design Basics - Calculations

Turbocharging

Turbocharging Basic Concepts Air Charging


Air charging is to increase air mass to the engine by raising intake manifold air density Increased air mass allows more fuel to be burnt and increase power output Air charging is achieved by pre-compression of intake charge by some type of compressor POWER RATE OF MASS AIR FLOW RATE

Turbocharging

Air Charging Turbo/Super-charging


When the compressor is mechanically driven by the engine, it is called Supercharging

When the compressor is driven by an exhaust driven turbine, it is called Turbocharging


Supercharging
Air flow Speed, not Load Engine Torque tends to be flat Consume engine crankshaft power High pressure superchargers are Bulky

Turbocharging
Air flow Speed & Load Altitude compensation Exhaust gas energy is effectively utilized Runs at high speeds & thus are not Bulky

Turbocharging

Work Available from Ideal Exhaust Process


PP
Exhaust energy convertible to Turbine power = Me x Cpe x T3 x {1 1/(P3/P4)k-1/k}

Available Energy from Exhaust 4

Pa

Pumping Loss

Vcl
TDC BDC V

Turbocharging

Turbocharging

Compression Ratio Considerations


Efficiency (Simulated)

Air charging increases intake manifold pressure and temp as well as corresponding peak compression pressure and temp. With increased power, mechanical & thermal stresses increase. These must be addressed by suitable measures, (eg. Design, reducing compression ratio etc.) The efficiency reduction due to compression ratio reduction is, however small.

SI Engine
0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.40

10 Compression Ratio

11

12

CI Engine
0.60
Efficiency (Simulated)

0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.46

12

14

16 Compression Ratio

18

20

Turbocharging

Density, g/cc

Charge compression increases pressure, temperature and density

Charge Density Effects


0.0030 0.0025 0.0020 0.0015 0.0010 0.0005 0.0000 Ambient Turbo Cooled
Full Cooling E = 0.8

Charge Cooling - HD Diesel

Cooling of Compressed charge termed Charge Cooling reduces temp and further increases density 3
Modern turbocharged engine systems include charge cooling.
2.5
Density Ratio

E = 0.7 E = 0.6

No Cooling

1.5

1 1 1.5
Compressor Pressure Ratio

1.5

Turbocharging

Charge Air temp Effects


Nox g/kWhr 30
NOx g/kW - hr

FC g/kWhr
232 230 228 226 224 222 220 218 216 214

25 20 15 10 5 0 50 70 90 110 130
Charge Air Temp deg C

FC g/kW - hr

BSFC-NOx Trade off


50 deg C 100 deg C 150 deg C

150

24

NOx g/kW hr

20 16 12 8 4 0 200 220 240 260 280 300

BSFC g/kW hr

Turbocharging

Benefits of Turbocharging
Power density can be improved Brake thermal efficiency improvement possible - High IMEP possible with similar FMEP - Improved PMEP (depends on turbocharger efficiency)

Can help optimize for emissions


- Smoke - Noise

Possible to improve torque back up


Built in compensate for reduced air density at altitude