Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition

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Learning Objectives

Explain the purpose and various phases of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Explain when to use an adaptive approach to the SDLC in place of a more predictive traditional SDLC Explain the differences between a model, a tool, a technique, and a methodology Describe the two overall approaches used to develop information systems: the traditional method and the object-oriented method
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assumes project cannot be planned out in advance All projects use some variation of SDLC 3 .2 The Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)    Systems development life cycle (SDLC)  Provides overall framework for managing systems development process Two main approaches to SDLC  Predictive approach – assumes project can be planned out in advance  Adaptive approach – more flexible.

and install new system Support – keep system running and improve 4 . plan schedule.2 Traditional Predictive Approach to the SDLC      Project planning – initiate. obtain approval for project Analysis – understand business needs and processing requirements Design – define solution system based on requirements and analysis decisions Implementation – construct. ensure feasibility. train users. test.

2 “Waterfall” Approach to the SDLC 5 .

Modified Waterfall Approach with Overlapping Phases (Figure 2-5) 2 6 .

Newer Adaptive Approaches to the SDLC  2  Based on spiral model  Project cycles through development activities over and over until project is complete  Prototype created by end of each cycle  Focuses on mitigating risk Iteration – Work activities are repeated  Each iteration refines previous result  Approach assumes no one gets it right the first time  There are a series of mini projects for each iteration 7 .

resource.2 Activities of Planning Phase of SDLC  Define business problem and scope detailed project schedule project feasibility  Produce  Confirm  Economic. and schedule  Staff the project (resource management)  Launch project  official announcement 8 . technical. organizational.

2 Activities of Analysis Phase of SDLC  Gather  Define  Build information to learn problem domain system requirements prototypes for discovery of requirements requirements and evaluate alternatives  Prioritize  Generate  Review recommendations with management 9 .

2 Activities of Design Phase of SDLC  Design  Design  Design  Design  Design and integrate the network the application architecture the user interfaces the system interfaces and integrate the database for design details  Prototype  Design and integrate system controls 10 .

Activities of Implementation Phase of SDLC  Construct  Verify 2 software components and test data users and document the system  Convert  Train  Install the system 11 .

and updates  Enhance  system Small upgrades or enhancements to expand system capabilities Larger enhancements may require separate development project   Support  users Help desk and/or support team 12 . repairs.2 Activities of Support Phase of SDLC  Maintain  system Small patches.

but not same as real thing Abstraction used to separate out aspect    Diagrams and charts Project planning and budgeting aids 13 .2 Methodologies and Models  Methodologies  Comprehensive guidelines to follow for completing every SDLC activity Collection of models. tools. and techniques   Models  Representation of an important aspect of real world.

2 Tools and Techniques  Tools  Software support that helps create models or other required project components Range from simple drawing programs to complex CASE tools to project management software   Techniques  Collection of guidelines that help analysts complete a system development activity or task  Can be step-by-step instructions or just general advice 14 .

2 Two Approaches to System Development  Traditional    approach Also called structured system development Structured analysis and design technique (SADT) Includes information engineering (IE)  Object-oriented   approach Also called OOA. OOD. and OOP Views information system as collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks 15 .

or files are defined – just objects   OO languages: Java.NET.2 Object-Oriented Approach  Completely different approach to information systems  Views information system as collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks  Objects – things in computer system that can respond to messages Conceptually. data entities. C# . VB . programs.NET 16 . C++. no processes.

2 Object-Oriented Approach  Object-oriented analysis (OOA)   Defines types of objects users deal with Shows use cases are required to complete tasks Defines object types needed to communicate with people and devices in system  Object-oriented design (OOD)    Shows how objects interact to complete tasks Refines each type of object for implementation with specific language of environment Writing statements in programming language to define what each type of object does 17  Object-oriented programming (OOP)  .

participatory design Sociotechnical systems  Some   increase speed of development Rapid application development (RAD) Prototyping 18 .2 SDLC Variations  Many  variations of SDLC in practice Based on variation of names for phases  No matter which one. activities/tasks are similar  Some   increase emphasis on people User-centered design.

Life Cycles with Different Names for Phases (Figure 2-20) 2 19 .

define and manage system requirements. create visual models. use component architectures. verify quality. control changes) Programming (XP): Recent development approach to keep process simple and efficient Modeling: Hybrid of XP and UP Respond to situation as rapidly as possible 20  Extreme  Agile  Scrum: .2 Current Trends in Development  The Unified Process (UP): Reinforces six best practices(develop iteratively.

2 Tools to Support System Development  Computer-aided system engineering (CASE)  Automated tools to improve the speed and quality of system development work Contains database of information about system called repository     Upper CASE – support for analysis and design Lower CASE – support for implementation ICASE – integrated CASE tools  Now called visual modeling tools. integrated application development tools. and round-trip engineering tools 21 .

implementation. and others use a more adaptive approach to the SDLC SDLC phases include project planning. and implementation Models. design. techniques. phases overlap. and projects contain many iterations of analysis. and tools make up a system development methodology System development methodology provides guidelines to complete every activity in the SDLC System development methodologies are based on traditional approach or object-oriented approach Current trends include: Extreme Programming (XP). analysis. Agile Modeling. and support In practice.Summary          2 System development projects are organized around the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Some projects use a predictive approach to the SDLC. design. and Scrum CASE tools are designed to help analysts complete system 22 development tasks . Unified Process (UP).

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