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Histology of the Female Genital System
The female genital system consists of:
1. Primary sex organ: 2 ovaries. 2. Accessory sex organs:
1. Two oviducts (Fallopian tubes). 2. Uterus. 3. Vagina. 4. External genitalia. 5. Two mammary glands.
divided into peripheral cortex and central medulla.The ovaries The ovary is a flattened almond-shaped small body. .. The medulla consists of highly vascular C. lymphatics and nerves. having elastic fibers. The cortex is broad and contains the ovarian follicles separated by the inter-follicular tissue.T. smooth muscle fibers.
. Their cytoplasm is rich in lipoid granules. The endocrine cells: polygonal in shape. with central rounded nuclei. Reticular connective tissue: present inbetween the ovarian follicles. They are present between the ovarian follicles. they secrete female hormones. It is formed of white collagenous connective tissue fibers. The germinal epithelium: it covers the ovary from outside. but not in humans. It is simple cuboidal in young females and simple squamous in adults. Stromal cells: are fusiform cells with oval nuclei similar to fibroblasts. In animals. Parenchyma of the ovaries The ovarian follicles: in different stages of development and degeneration.Stroma of the ovaries Tunica albuginea is the covering connective tissue capsule of the ovary.
Histological sections in the ovary .
The ovarian follicles .
At birth. 3. Primary follicles. Primordial follicles. Mature follicles. Secondary follicles. 4. 2. The remaining follicles degenerate and change to atretic follicles which are converted to white connective tissue bodies. the average number of 1ry follicles is 4000. They are: 1. .The ovarian follicles They are present mainly in the cortex of the ovary under the tunica albuginea. only 400 ova are produced during the reproductive period of the adult female.
mitochondria and lipid droplets. RER. Its cytoplasm contains a well-developed Golgi apparatus. They are formed of central primary oocytes which are surrounded by a single layer of simple squamous cells called follicular cells.(1) Primordial follicles They are derived from the primordial germ cells in the yolk sac and then migrate to the developing ovary. The oocyte is a large cell with large eccentric vesicular nucleus with a large nucleolus. .
(2) Primary follicle The oocyte enlarges and develops Golgi apparatus. called zona pellucida. Outer fibrous layer. The connective tissue surrounding the follicle condenses and forms two layers: – Inner highly vascular secretory – layer. The flat follicular cells becomes cuboidal and multiply to give rise several layers (stratified) called granulosa cells. theca externa. . ribosomes and mitochondria. It becomes surrounded by a thick highly acidophilic glycoprotein coat. theca interna.
The oocyte starts its 1st meiotic division and remains in the prophase until ovulation. The oocyte is eccentric and is surrounded by a mass of granulosa cells called cumulus oophorus. The liquor folliculi contains growth factors.(3) Secondary follicle The granulosa cells reach 6-12 layers and start to secrete fluid which forms irregular spaces between the granulosa cells. steroid and gonadotrophic hormones. . The spaces gradually fuse to form a crescentic space called antrum which contains liquor folliculi.
The granulosa cells secrete estrogen. rounded eccentric nucleus . The ovum is the largest cell in the body. The liquor folliculi accumulates between the cells of cumulus oophorus freeing the oocyte from the cells except for one layer called corona radiata cells. It has a large.(4) Mature Graafian Follicle The primordial follicle reaches maturity in 10-14 days and occupies the whole thickness of the cortex and bulges out on the free surface of ovary.
Mature Graafian Follicle .
.Ovulation It occurs between day 10-14 of the ovarian cycle. the oocyte with its surrounding corona radiata enters the oviduct. After ovulation. complete its first meiotic division and start the second meiotic division (which is completed after fertilization). It is under influence of LH of pituitary. The Graafian follicle rupture through the stigma due to increase of liquor folliculi. The remaining of the mature follicle is transformed into corpus luteum.
granulosa cells enlarge and accumulate lipid droplets and called granulosa lutein cells. After ovulation. and capillaries grow in-between granulosa cells. it degenerates and is transformed into fibrous tissue called corpus albicans.Corpus Luteum It is considered as a temporary endocrine organ. Basement membrane between theca interna and granulosa cells dissolves. it enlarges and continues to function for 3 moths till the placenta is formed and take the gob. Under influence of LH. Fate of Corpus Luteum If pregnancy occurs. The same also happens to theca interna cells which are now called theca lutein cells. the granulosa cell secrete progesterone and estrogen. . If pregnancy does not occur.
Corpus Luteum Granulosa lutein cells .
2. 2. 3. partly ciliated (to move the ovum toward the uterus) and partly non-ciliated (secretory cells. Mucosa: highly folded and is formed of A. Histology of the Oviduct 1. 4. Lamina propria: connective tissue rich in blood vessels. B. Serosa: areolar connective tissue covered by simple . Infundibulum: funnel-shaped opening.The oviduct (Uterine tube) It extends from the ovary to the uterus. Epithelium: simple columnar. Intramural part: traverses the uterine wall. Musculosa: inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle fibers. Isthmus: narrow part near to uterus. where fertilization usually occurs. nutritive to the ovum). It is divided into 4 segments: 1. Ampulla: the widest part. having finger-like processes (fimbriae).
The oviduct .
Hormonal control of female cycle .
Female Reproductive Cycle .
Ampulla: the widest part. Infundibulum: funnel-shaped opening. Intramural part: traverses the uterine wall. nutritive to the ovum). Epithelium: simple columnar. It is divided into 4 segments: 1. B. partly ciliated (to moved the ovum toward the uterus) and partly non-ciliated (secretory peg cells. where fertilization usually occurs. 2. 4. having finger-like processes (fimbriae). Isthmus: narrow part near to uterus. Serosa: areolar connective tissue covered by simple . Mucosa: highly folded and is formed of A. 2. 3. Lamina propria: connective tissue rich in blood vessels. Histology of the Oviduct 1. Musculosa: inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle fibers.The oviduct It extends from the ovary to the uterus.
The oviduct .
It undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones.The Uterus It is a thick-walled pear-shaped organ which has a narrow lumen. The body is formed of 3 layers: 1. 3. The endometrium It is lined by simple columnar epithelium. Its lamina propria contains simple tubular mucous glands lined by columnar epithelium and may reach to the myometrium. Endometrium. Myometrium. . It is divided into superficial layer (stratum functionalis) and deep layer (stratum basalis). 2. Perimetrium. It is formed of body and cervix.
Uterine wall .
Secretory phase (from day 17 day 26). blood vessels and covered by simple squamous mesothelium. The middle layer is called stratum vascularis and contains numerous large blood vessels. 3. Proliferative phase (from day 6 day 16). During pregnancy. 2. 4. the smooth muscle fibers increase in length.The myometrium 3 layers of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissue. The perimetrium It is formed of areolar connective tissue. . Premenstrual stage (from day 27 day 28). They are not easily distinguished from each other. Cyclic changes of the endometrium 1. Menstrual stage (from day 1 day 5).
tissue debris and blood are sloughed out and discharged through vagina. Constriction of coiled arteries for long periods causes ischemia and rupture of capillaries. Stratum functionalis is lost.(1) Menstrual Stage Due to hormonal deficiency specially progesterone. . Glands fragment and uterine fluid.
Under the effect of estrogen secreted by the follicles. become straight and uniform. It is the stage of regeneration of the stratum functionalis from stratum basalis.(2) Proliferative Stage Occurs during maturation of follicles till ovulation. Epithelium of basal glands recovers the raw surface. Endometrium increases in thickness from 0.5 mm to 2-3 mm. . Glands increase in length.
Endometrial glands become coiled (cork-screw). Endometrium becomes hypertrophied and vascular to reaches its full thickness (4-5 mm).(3) Secretory Stage Related to the formation of corpus luteum. . Under the effect of progesterone and estrogen secreted by the luteal cells. The glandular lumen contains secretions & rich in glycogen.
. Stratum functionalis appears deeply stained because of the closely packed stromal cells.(4) Premenstrual Stage Related to the involution of the corpus luteum and formation of corpus albicans. The thickness of the endometrium decreases. Spiral arteries undergo periodic constriction leading to stasis in capillaries and periods of ischemia. Glands stop secretion leading to shrinkage of stratum functionalis due to water loss.
Hormonal control & Menstrual cycle .
– Lamina propria: contains branched tubular glands secreting mucous. Adventitia: connective tissue (no peritoneum) . 1. – The cervical endometrium does not change during the menstrual cycle. only the amount and consistency of the mucous change. 2. Myometrium: dense connective tissue and few amount of smooth muscle fibers. Endometrium: – Epithelium: simple columnar mucoussecreting epithelium.The Cervix It consists of: 1.
Musculosa: longitudinal muscle fibers continuous with uterine muscles. 2. Adventitia: dense connective tissue. .The Vagina It consists of: 1. – Lamina propria: contains lymphatic nodules but no glands. Mucosa: – Epithelium: stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium rich in glycogen. 1.
The Vagina .
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