Mu123 – 27 April 2011 Joe Jewell

BEETHOVEN AND THE METRONOME

OUTLINE
Background  Tempo controversies in Beethoven‘s music  Examples

 Symphony

No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67  Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. 67

Conclusion  Bibliography

composers can simply write more notes at a slower tempo.ROLE OF TEMPO IN MUSIC Tempo is the ―heartbeat‖ of the music  Sense of rhythmic speed is not limited to tempo.  Tempo is inextricably linked to melody (according to Schuller)  .

quickly and bright Vivace — lively and fast Presto — very fast Prestissimo — extremely fast . "at ease") Andante — at a walking pace Moderato — moderately Allegro moderato — moderately quick Allegro — fast.TEMPO MARKINGS           Grave — slow and solemn Largo — very slow Adagio — slow and stately (literally.

pianist  1815 ―invented‖ and marketed the metronome  . America)  Active in Vienna during Beethoven‘s time there  ―Mechanic‖ (engineer).JOHANN NEPOMUK MAELZEL 1772 (Regensburg) – 1838 (at sea. inventor. S.

MAELZEL METRONOME (1815) .

160 bpm Presto — 168–200 bpm Prestissimo — more than 200 bpm .TEMPO MARKINGS (METRONOME)           Grave — 20-40 bpm Largo — 40–60 bpm Adagio — 66–76 bpm Andante — 76–108 bpm Moderato — 101-110 bpm Allegro moderato — 112–124 bpm Allegro — 120–139 bpm Vivace — 140 .

BEETHOVEN AND MAELZEL .

and Malzel‘s metronome gives us the best opportunity to do so…‖ (Letter to von Mosel.  Took the time to add metronome markings to previously published pieces.g. 1817)  Very specific with tempo indications: e. ―Andante con moto assai vivace quasi allegretto ma non troppo” for the ―Kyrie‖ in the C minor Mass. presto. adagio.  . andante.BEETHOVEN AND THE METRONOME ―I have thought for a long time of giving up these nonsensical terms allegro.

Beethoven‘s metronome markings indicate quicker speeds…than we hear today.‖  .‖  Symphony halls (and symphonies) are larger— articulation issues  Some claim that indicated fast tempos are ―unplayable‖ (though this has been demonstrated false)  John Rockwell (1987): ―A steady entropy of tempo…Western classical music has slowed down.TEMPO CONTROVERSIES John Rockwell (1987): ―As a rule.

ARTURO TOSCANINI 1867-1957 Beethoven symphony tempi: Generally right on Beethoven‘s mark .

LEONARD BERNSTEIN 1918-1990 Beethoven symphony tempi: Usually quite a bit slower than marked .

usually close to the mark. 1963 cycle slower. 1977 and 1984 cycles faster.HERBERT VON KARAJAN 1908-1989 Beethoven symphony tempi: Vary. .

5. MVT. 1: ALLEGRO CON BRIO .Beethoven: 108 bpm  Toscanini (NBC): 104 bpm  SYMPHONY NO.

MVT.Beethoven: 108 bpm  Bernstein (NY Phil): 82 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. 1: ALLEGRO CON BRIO . 5.

ALLEGRO. MVT. .Beethoven: 96 bpm  Karajan 1977 (Berlin Phil): 96 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. 5. 3: SCHERZO.

5. 3: SCHERZO.Beethoven: 96 bpm  Karajan 1977 (Berlin Phil): 96 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. . ALLEGRO. MVT.

Beethoven: 96 bpm  Bernstein (Bavarian Radio): 76 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. ALLEGRO. . MVT. 3: SCHERZO. 5.

.Beethoven: 69 bpm  Karajan 1984 (Berlin Phil): 72 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. 7 MVT. 1: POCO SOSTENUTO.

1: POCO SOSTENUTO.Beethoven: 69 bpm  Furtwangler (Vienna Phil): 54 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. 7 MVT. .

7 MVT. . 1: POCO SOSTENUTO.Beethoven: 69 bpm  Gross 2009 (Oxy-Caltech): 69 bpm  SYMPHONY NO.

3: ASSAI MENO PRESTO (TRIO) .Beethoven: 84 bpm  Toscanini (BBC): 84 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. 7 MVT.

Beethoven: 84 bpm  Toscanini (BBC): 84 bpm  SYMPHONY NO. 7 MVT. 3: ASSAI MENO PRESTO (TRIO) .

7 MVT. 3: ASSAI MENO PRESTO (TRIO) .Beethoven: 84 bpm  Bernstein(Vienna Phil): 58 bpm  SYMPHONY NO.

7 MVT. 3: ASSAI MENO PRESTO (TRIO) .Beethoven: 84 bpm  Gross 2009 (Oxy-Caltech): 76 bpm  SYMPHONY NO.

 .‖ Schindler. Beethoven‘s first question was always: ‗How were the tempi?‘ Everything else seemed of secondary importance to him. Life of Beethoven (1840)  Beethoven personally added metronome markings to his pieces  Beethoven‘s personal metronome still exists and has been tested. it is accurate.CONCLUSIONS ―When one of his pieces was performed.

John (1987) ―Pondering Beethoven‘s Metronome‖ . Beethoven Haus website: http://www. Rudolf and Mendel. No. 19 No. Arthur (1943) ―Tempo and Character in Beethoven‘s Music—Part II‖. 2. No. Lewis (2003) Beethoven: The Music and the Life (Norton) Brown. Early Music Vol.beethoven-haus-bonn. 29. 29. Gunther (1997) The Compleat Conductor (Oxford) Lockwood. 2. 1987. The Musical Quarterly Vol. New York Times. Rockwell. Kolisch. February 19.BIBLIOGRAPHY        Schuller. 3. Rudolf and Mendel. Clive (1991) ―Metronome Marks and Tempo in Beethoven‘s Symphonies‖. The Musical Quarterly Vol.de . Arthur (1943) ―Tempo and Character in Beethoven‘s Music—Part I‖. Kolisch.

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