UNIVERSAL MACHINES

.C power.What are universal machines  Universal machines are those which operate on both A.  A universal motor has a high starting torque and variable speed characteristics. Such motor runs at dangerously high speeds during no load period.C and D.

 · Non-compensated type with concentrated poles  · Compensated type with distributed field. .Types A universal motor can be manufactured in two different ways.

Compensated universal motor  The compensated type is preferred for high power rating appliances and the Non-compensated for low power rated appliances. Both the compensated and Non-compensated have construction similar to that of a DC series motor. .

This will be considerably reduced by using the Skew .The skew in the armature slots serves for two purposes:  · It reduces the magnetic hum.  · It aids in reducing the locking tendency of rotor. The armature is of wound type and the laminated core is either straight or skewed slots. which is called magnetic locking. Magnetic locking is a condition during which the rotor teeth remains locked under the stator teeth due to magnetic attraction between the stator and rotor.Non-Compensated motor  The Non-compensated motor has 2 salient poles and it is laminated. The leads of the armature winding are connected to the commutator. High resistance brushes are used along with this type of motor to help better commutation.

Similar to the split phase motors. the compensated type also consists of an additional winding.  Both the types of motors develop unidirectional torque regardless of the supply with which they run.Compensated universal motor  The compensated type motor consists of distributed field winding and the stator core is similar to that of split-phase motor. The compensating winding helps in reducing the reactance voltage which is caused due to alternating flux. . We already know that split phase motors consist of an auxiliary winding in addition to main winding. when the motor runs with the aid of an AC supply. The supply may be AC or DC but the direction of torque is same.

the universal motor also has varying speed characteristics. . The speed is Very high and dangerous at noloads. During no-loads the speed is limited only by its own frictional and windage load.Speed/Load Characteristics  Very similar to that of DC series motor. The speed is low at full loads.

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 Resistance method  Centrifugal Mechanism  Tapping Field Method . Speed control of universal motor is very important and the following methods are employed for the speed control of universal motors.

The amount of resistance in the circuit can be changed. A foot pedal is used for this purpose. . Usually this method is employed for motors used in sewing machines.Resistance method:  In this method of speed control a variable resistance is connected in series with the motor.

resistance method speed control .

the contact is established and resistance is short circuited. If the motor rises above the specified speed set by the lever. This causes the speed to increase. the centrifugal device opens the contact and R comes in contact with the circuit.Centrifugal Mechanism:  This method is involved whenever the application involves a number of speeds. The variations in speed are noticeable as the process is repeated in a rapid manner . Best example is home food and fruit mixers. When the motor runs slower than the speed set by the lever. This causes the motor speed to decrease below the set speed. Here a centrifugal device is attached to the motor.

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Various tappings are brought out from this wire. This is done by wounding the field pole.Tapping-Field Method:  As the name suggests the field is tapped at various points in this method.  In the second method. . resistance made of Nichrome is wounded over the field pole.  The tapping arrangement is established by two ways  · The various sections in the field pole are wounded and different sizes of wire and taps are brought out from those sections.

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Applications  Universal motors are mostly employed in  · Vacuum cleaners  · Portable drills  · Drink mixers  · Sewing machine .

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