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GROUP LEADER : LEE CHUN HUI (162339) GROUP MEMBERS : TENGKU ALIF (162272) UMI AMIRA BINTI AMRAN (162679) PUSPAMALAH A/P KRISHNASAMY (162964) NISRIN NADILAH BINTI NASRI (163405) CHOR YEE REEN (163435) SITI NOOR AZNIE BINTI YAZID (163843) NUR ATHIRAH BINTI ZAINAL ABIDIN (165189) LECTURER : PUAN ZARINAH BINTI ARSHAT
1.0 Dynamics of Interactions and Transaction Between Individual and Family 1.1 Concepts of Family 1.2 Family’s Form, Structure and Function 1.3 Formation of Family 1.4 Family’s Tasks 2.0 Same-Sex Marriage 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Causes 2.2.1 Weak Masculinity/Feminine Identity 2.2.2 Gender Identity Disorder 2.2.3 Dysfunctional Family Life 2.2.4 Others 2.3 Impacts 2.3.1 HIV/AIDS 2.3.2 Physical Health Risks 2.3.3 Emotional and Mental Health Risk 3.0 Conclusion
1.0 DYNAMICS OF INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY
1. Family is known as a ) an ecological system which governs individuals that interact with and within the environment. b ) a social system where every part of the family is interrelated and interdependent on each other. 2. Family has its own structure, functions and also tasks. 3. Family undergoes continuous process of adaption in different situation and environment. 4. 2 main sets of rules that influence family-environment interactions, a) the natural physical and biological laws such as thermodynamic rules of matter-energy transformation b) the values and rules that are constructed by the human beings.
1.1 CONCEPTS OF FAMILY
Family is a basic unit of the society comprises individuals which can be a. blood related b. related through marriage c. adopted Family members are a. independent yet interdependent b. share similar goals and resources c. able to commit towards each other Family’s needs to survive and to obtain resources for example a. food and information b. need to interact for communication c. sense of love and secure d. need to exist. Family values must be understood because values may have impact on decision making and the interactions within the socio-cultural environment. Family uses resources and motivation to achieve certain functions.
6. Family management involve achievement, discovery, coordination and usage of resources, the process of determining goals, planning and implementation 7. Family’s decision making is considered to be a. universal which involve conflict management that often reflects family member’s perceptions, needs, values and style b. basic to all family function and relate to past and future of the family. c. a complex process and happened when families are faced uncertainties
8. Three common patterns of family decision makings a. consensus (reaches mutual agreement and understanding) b. accommodation (see one of the sides agree to stop further discussion) c. defacto (decision without agreement and just to keep family functioning)
1. Forms of family : 1.2 FAMILY
FORM, STRUCTURE a) congjugal is the forming of a nuclear family through AND FUNCTIONS marriage
b) nuclear is a family consist of parents and children c) consanguines extended family based upon blood relations d) intact family are comprises of both parents and children e) single parent family led by a parent with children due to divorce, death, separation or never married f) remarried families formed when one or both partners have been previously married g) step family is one or both married partners have children from previous marriage; h) family of orientation Is the family that we were born into i) family of procreation is the family that we form upon marriage.
2. Family structure : a. parents, b. husband/wife c. children 3. 5 basic family functions : (i) reproductive (ii) legalized sexual activities between married partners (iii) socialization of children (iv) establishing reciprocal economic activities with the society (v) provision of emotional support to members. 4. Other functions : for the development of individual members for protection, economic, nurturance mediation, education, adaptation and continuity.
1.3 FORMATION OF FAMILY
choose a life partner
• Individuals understand and know about themselves and then get to know his or her potential partner. • start a relationship and later get married.
• helps to decrease the number of potential candidates. • filters are propinquity, social background, attractiveness, and match. • lastly analyse and evaluation of the relationship.
several preparations wedding and marriage process
• mental preparation which includes accept the other half into life and relationship with his or her family, • physical preparation such as health and medical check up.
• maintain process. • couples may have children and then the family is now further expanded and facing various tasks.
1.4 FAMILY’S TASKS
1. Each level of family life cycle will have the specific needs and tasks (different family experiences different family life cycle).
Early stage (couple just married) • couples have to discuss and plan the family’s future in term of parenting, financial management • establish the interaction and expression pattern of the family. Child bearing stage • learn and adapt to the new roles especially the parents’ roles. • further family planning and financial management is needed in order for the family to be develop better and brighter children’s future.
Having pre-scholar and schooling children • • • • the family starts to provide more space, facilities and things for the children. Financial management become crucial. communication between family members to ensure strong and healthy relationship. children start to share the household responsibilities.
Children grew into adults • household arrangement are rearranged. • parents maintain open communication with the adult children and possibly expand relationship through children’s marriages. • couple switch attention to arrange the retirement life and comfortable routines.
2.0 SAME SEX MARRIAGE
Ancient Sparta and the Dorian island of Thera officially recognized the gay marriages (Rictor Norton, February 21, 2004). Back to 2nd century Rome, there was already legally binding conjugal contracts between men around the same age. Ancient writers did recorded about same-sex marriage as well, for instance Strabo and Athenaeus wrote about homosexuality among the Gails or Celts whereas Aristotle and Siculus wrote about the relationship and ceremony of men marriage. The major arguments around the same-sex marriage are human right issues, mental health concerns and also the status of same-sex couples and the usage of the word “marriage” by same-sex couples. Causes of same-sex marriage are often link with the weak masculine and feminine identity, gender identity disorder, dysfunctional family life and other causes. On the other hand, same-sex marriage is believed to have impact like HIV/AIDS, physical health risks and emotional and mental health risks.
10 COUNTRIES THAT LEGALIZE SAME SEX MARRIAGE
Country 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Netherland Belgium Spain Canada South Africa Norway Legalized Date 1 April ,2001 1 June,2003 30 June,2005 19 July,2005 30 Nov,2006 1 Jan,2009
8th 9th 10th
Portugal Iceland Argentina
17 May,2010 11 June,2010 21 July,2010
Beside these countries, Mexico City – Dec 2009 and 6 cities of United States (Massachusetts – 17 May 2004, California – May 2008 , Connecticut – Oct 2008, Vermont - April 2009, Iowa – April 2009, New Hampshire - June 2010 New York - July 2011) also recognize same-sex marriages.
NEW YORK (STATE OF USA) ALLOWS SAME-SEX MARRIAGE, BECOMING LARGEST STATE TO PASS LAW
Caption : Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York signed a same-sex marriage bill into law late Friday in his office at the State Capitol.
The marriage bill, whose fate was uncertain until moments before the vote, was approved 33 to 29 in a packed but hushed Senate chamber. Senate approval was the final hurdle for the same-sex marriage legislation, which was approved last week by the Assembly. Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo signed the measure at 11:55 p.m., 24 June 2011 and the law will go into effect in 30 days, meaning that same-sex couples could begin marrying in New York by late July.
2.2 CAUSES OF SAME SEX MARRIAGE
2.2.1 Weak Masculine/Feminine Identity
(Harvey, 2004) The major cause of same-sex attraction disorder (SSAD) in men is the easily identified weak masculine identity. The condition is usually come together with peer rejection and also may be an outgrowth of weak eye-hand coordination and poor sports ability. A boy who can’t play sports well may feel bad especially when he is rejected and isolated from his peers. He may escape the resulting loneliness with academics or by cultivating comfortable relationships with girls. His negative views of masculinity and his loneliness can caused him to create the masculinity of his male peers. Another major influence on a boy’s masculine identity is when a father is perceived by a child as distant, critical, selfish, angry or alcoholic. The boy’s needs are never fulfil by his father and his physically and mentally affected. Mother conflicts, peer rejection or poor body image contribute to the weak feminine identity in women. However, this condition is rarer than that in men and eventually this phenomenon could explain why male homosexuality is much more common than female homosexuality.
2.2.2 Gender Identity Disorder
(Fitzgibbons, 2008) According to the American Psychiatric Association, gender Identity Disorder (GID) is defined as a strong persistent cross-gender identification, a discomfort with one's own sex, and a preference for crosssex roles in play or in fantasies. The gender identity disorder in children is often the contributors to same-sex attraction in adolescence hence later the same-sex marriage in adulthood. However, prenatal hormones may abnormally masculinise or feminize the developing foetus in some individuals especially when pregnant lady is exposed to the pollutants which have hormone-like effect on the body and the foetus. The resulting gender distortions could affect the child’s sense of himself or herself. (Linda Ames Nicolosi, 2002)
2.2.3 Dysfunctinal Family Life
(Harvey & Bradley, 2004) Faulty family relationships are the source of same-sex attraction and hence the samesex marriages cause. A family without a father or a mother may cause the adolescent children to have confused perception of the gender identity. In addition, divorced family often see that the dominant side criticize the ex in various negative ways resulted the lost of respects to the father or mother hence causing a potential SSAD in the adolescent. On the other hand, intact family but the parents who verbally abuse one another in front of children may inadvertently force the children to “pick sides,” and, especially if there is already a distance between a child and a father, the son may then have weak masculinity. Marital infidelity is also a contributing factor, especially if it impacts on an adolescent boy or girl.
Other causes of same-sex marriage and homosexuality are distrust in men or women, sexual abuse and paedophilia(sexual interest to children), separation from a parent during the critical time of development, or the failure of parents to encourage same-sex identification and friendships. All these causes are closely related to unhealthy mental growth and hence see the men or women to develop uncommon social patterns of choosing the same sex as the life partner.
2.3 IMPACTS OF SAME SEX MARRIAGE
2.3.1 HIV / AIDS
Homosexual activity remains a major source of transmission of the HIV/AIDS virus. (Stolberg, 1997) A young male homosexual has about a 50 percent chance of getting HIV by middle age. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998, June, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 10 (1)). As of 1998, 54 percent of all AIDS cases in America were homosexual men and according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) nearly 90 percent of these men acquired HIV through sexual activity with other men. However, there is a research which oppositely shown that gay-marriage ban actually raised the HIV rate (Andrew Francis & Hugo Mialon, June 4, 2009). The study linked the passage of same-sex marriage ban in a state to an increase in the annual HIV rate within that state of roughly 4 cases per 100,000 populations. This is explained with the bans on gay marriage codify intolerance, causing more gay people to shift to underground sexual behaviours that carry more risk. (Hugo Mialon, 2009)
2.3.1 Physical Health Risks
There is a lot of maladies attendant upon the homosexually active population which include Chlamydia Trachomatis, cryptosporidium, giardia lamblia, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus (HPV) or genital warts, isospora belli, microsporidia, gonorrhoea, viral hepatitis types B & C and syphilis . The most attention needed is anal cancer. (J.R. Daling et.al, April 9, 1982) The risk of anal cancer soars by 4000 percent among those who engage in anal intercourse. Besides that, study shows that the mortality rates for homosexual and bisexual men are higher than that of average men. (R.S Hogg, et al, 1997) In a major Canadian center, life expectancy at age 20 years for gay and bisexual men is eight to 20 years less than for all men. If the same pattern of mortality continues, we estimate that nearly half of gay and bisexual men currently aged 20 years will not reach their 65th birthday.
2.3.1 Emotional / Mental Health Risks
Psychological studies shown that the increase in exposure to negative conversations and media messages about same-sex marriage contribute negative impacts on the homosexual, bisexual and transgender / LGB population where their health is affected. In 2010, a Mailman School of Public Health carried out study examining the effects of institutional discrimination on the psychiatric health of the homosexual and bisexual (LGB) individuals and the results showed that an increase in psychiatric disorders, including more than two times of anxiety disorders among the LGB population living in areas that instituted bans on samesex marriage. [Mark, Katie, Katherine, and Deborah 2010]. The study highlighted the importance of abolishing institutional forms of discrimination, comprising the contributors of the difference in mental health and well-being of LGB individuals. Institutional discrimination is characterized by societal-level conditions that limit the opportunities and access to resources by socially disadvantaged groups. Besides that, there are two extensive studies published in the October 1999 issue of American Medical Association Archives of General Psychiatry confirmed the existence of relationship between homosexuality and suicide, as well as other mental and emotional problems. This is due to the adolescent who identify themselves as homosexual, lesbian and bisexual are • four times more likely than their peers to suffer from major depression, • three times more likely to suffer anxiety disorders, • four times more likely to suffer conduct disorders, • six times more likely to suffer from multiple disorders and • more than six times more likely to have attempted suicide.
Compared to controls who had no homosexual experience in the 12 months prior to the interviews, males who had any homosexual contact within that time period were much more likely to experience major depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Females with any homosexual contact within the previous 12 months were also more often diagnosed with major depression, social phobia or alcohol dependence. (Fitzgibbons, 1999) Men and women with a history of homosexual contact had a higher prevalence of nearly all psychiatric disorders mentioned in the study. And it’s believed that these findings are the result of a lifestyle marked by rampant promiscuity and an inability to make commitments, combined with unresolved sadness, profound insecurity, anger and mistrust from childhood and adolescence.
Family is important social system for every individual. All individuals would have his or her role in the family, contributing and sharing resources. A healthy family should have healthy communication between the members. Tasks and problems should be face and solve together. Evaluation and analysis should be done from time to time to ensure the development of family and individuals are positive. Situation where lost of spouse cause of death or separation and divorce should be handling with care. Children’s emotion should be taken care of by the parents. This can be done by more communication intergeneration and give more concerns. It is known and found that children and adolescent who do not have pleasant experience during growth tend to develop unhealthy mindset and more likely to have SSAD which see the adolescent develop interests on the same-sex and tend to establish relationship and even marriage with the same-sex. Even though human right issue remain to be on debate and same sex couples are urged to be respected and recognised, the impacts of same-sex marriage cannot be under estimated. Beside the long list of physical health risks and high mortality rate, the emotional and mental health of the homosexuals seems to be more significant as its not only impact the same-sex couples themselves but also toward the future generations. Future generations may be facing the high risks of SSAD and the incorrect mindset of selecting same-sex as life partner. To conclude, family members should have healthy relationship among each other and ensure children and adolescent to grow up in healthy manner in term of physical and mental. Parents shouldn’t only play the breadwinner role, but also the educator and role model for the children.
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