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The simple answer is, It is a planned programme designed to improve Performance Skills & bring considerable change in Knowledge,

Skills, Attitude and Social behaviour of employees. Therefore, in order to build skills, training has to do two things: 1) Assess learner's skill level before training starts. 2) Design a program based on adult learning principles, including : Realistic scope Clear objectives Appropriate methodology Numerous opportunities to practice skills with feedback and suggestions for improvements Competent instructors Assess learner's skill level after training is over. If your learner's skills did not increase, your training did not work.

What Is Development ?
Development not only improves job performance but also brings about the growth of the personality. Individuals not only mature regarding their potential capacities but also become better individuals. E.g.:Development is the whole person concept. Not only teaching them how to turn the wrench, but also why we turn the wrench and challenging them to figure out a better way to turn that wrench. It is focused more on cultivating the individual to give them the tools to work upward through greater job and relationship complexities. The job of development has no end.

Difference between Training & development

1. Training is very specific, formal, time bound, well designed, planned, activity for a clear goal. 2. Its focus is bringing change in the participant's attitude, skills and knowledge so that in future he gets better or desired results. 3. Training involves investment in terms of cost and man-hour (time). 4. Training leads to development. 5. Training is part of development process. 6. Training methods are limited, if compared to development tools. Development 1. Development is a never ending process. 2. Development happens in both formal and informal way. 3. It can be voluntary or involuntary as every experience we undergo in life teaches us lessons whether we like it or not/ want it or no. 4. All learning is development. 5. It happens every where and every time 6. Training is one of the tools of development. 7. Development can be slow, unless we get focused and specific. 8. Development need not be costly. 9. Development is general and holistic concept. 10. Sources of development are too many to be counted. Eg. reading new papers, listening to parents, watching programmes on TV etc.

Formal training is usually concerned with gaining a skill. Training is done in trade schools, seminars, and business training classes. Informal training is usually done through reading, viewing or listening to how-to material. Sometimes that material is then used as a guide, while the person applies the skills learned. For example, you may refer to a how-to book when trying to fix your plumbing at home. Verification of skills is best achieved by actually doing something in the real world. Sometimes tests given in trade schools check for knowledge, as opposed to skill. Often in corporate training sessions and in seminars, there is no verification that the learner had achieved the desired skills.

Training CAN accomplish many things:1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

It can help people learn the new skills that are required to meet new expectations, both formal and informal Training can help people accept the challenge of their evolving jobs. Build a common understanding of the organization's purpose. Show management's commitment and loyalty to employees Develop people so they can increase their responsibilities and contribute to the organization in new ways.

Training cannot do many things: Training, on its own, cannot change ineffective

employees into effective ones. It is unlikely to address ALL the causes of poor performance. Limited training also will not turn a poor supervisor or manager into an effective one, unless it is coupled with ongoing coaching from above. Training will not erase problems that occur because of poor structuring of work, mismatching of work with the person, unclear authorities and responsibilities or other organization ally related issues.

Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits

Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.:

When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed

To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort

As part of an overall professional development program

As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system To train about a specific topic

General Benefits from Employee Training and Development

Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees Increased employee motivation Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

Increased innovation in strategies and products

Reduced employee turnover Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

Typical Present & future needs for Employee Training

Communications: wide variety of languages and customs. Computer skills: administrative and office tasks. Customer service: Increased competition to meet the needs of customers. Diversity: different perspectives and views includes techniques to value diversity Ethics: societys increasing expectations about CSR values and morals to the workplace. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors.

The best way of thinking about training is to think of it as a

management tool, much like a carpenter's tool. Just as if a carpenter picks the hammer and not a screwdriver to pound a nail, the manager should be choosing training because it is the RIGHT tool for the job. (the wood) is rotted, only the foolish carpenter would attempt to pound the nail into the wood, and expect it to help. It is the same with the manager. If a manager expects things to improve because of training, he or she needs to ensure that the supports are there for the use of the tool, and that there are no other nontraining related problems hanging about.

In addition, to continue the analogy, if the supporting structure

Training can be a valuable tool for the organization and the

manager, provided it is the RIGHT tool to solve the problem or address the identified issues. Even then, there must be supports in the organization so the training can be effective.

A tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires. For example, training dollars would be better spent on a new employee in the accounting department who needs to learn Microsoft Excel for their job duties as opposed to learning Microsoft Publisher which the employees wants but does not need.

Why conduct a training needs assessment?

To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line.

To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve their job performance.

To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues.

How is a training needs assessment performed?

Several techniques can be utilized individually or in combination with each other. More than one tool should be considered to get a better view of the big picture, however, which tools are used should be left up to the company. 1. Meet with management. 2. Meet with employees. 3. Conduct surveys.

4. Conduct focus groups..

5. Review company goals and mission statement.

First we have to fit our Business Goals and then we have to find

the necessary skills required to satisfy our Goals Find the people whom you want to train and how best to reach them. Find whether the employee accept training and the methods that fit their needs. Take the decision regarding the Training process, which fits the organization . Identify the trainee and fix the remuneration.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Gain attention Inform learners of objectives Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the content Provide "learning guidance Elicit performance (practice) Provide feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer to the job

Lecture Method Discussion Method E-learning

Simulations a) Equipment Simulators. b) Business Games. c) Case Study. d) Role Play.

Behaviour Modelling. On-the-job Training Job-instruction Technique (JIT). Apprenticeship Training. Coaching. Mentoring

Training cost can be significant in any business. Most

organizations are prepared to incur these cost because they expect that their business to benefit from employees development and progress .
There are four parties involved in evaluating the result

of any training. Trainer, Trainee, Training and Development department and Line Manager.

The Trainee wants to confirm that the course has met personal expectations and satisfied any learning objectives set by the T & D department at the beginning of the Programme. The Trainer concern is to ensure that the training that has been provided is effective or not. Training and Development want to know whether the course has made the best use of the resources available. The Line manager will be seeking reassurance that the time hat trainee has spent in attending training results in to value and how deficiency in knowledge and skill redressed.


Standard tests

HR factor (employee satisfaction)

Cost benefit Analysis(cost of training)


Total quality human resources management (TQHRM) is an approach to human resources management that involves many of the concepts of quality management especially on Training and Development. The primary goal of TQHRM is employee empowerment and training.

Questions : If any ?