The 90’s

• By 1992, Americans spend $12 billion to buy or rent video tapes, compared to just $4.9 billion on box office ticket sales • 76 percent of homes have VCRs

The 90’s
• Technical Innovation
– Non-linear editing
• Lost in Yonkers, 1993, edited entirely on an Avid Media Composer

Avid vs Steenbeck

The 90’s
• Technical Innovation
– CGI grows up
• Morphing in T2 • George Lucas’ Industrial Light & Magic creates CGI dinosaurs for Jurassic Park

The 90’s
• Technical Innovation – Dolby Stereo Digital
• Batman Returns, 1992 – DTS Digital Sound
• Jurassic Park, 1993

The 90’s
• Technical Innovation • & The Rise of Animation
– Pixar
• All CGI with shading and texture - 1995

– Disney
• Celebrity voices - 1994

The 90’s
• 1997 - DVD’s! • 1998 - HDTV broadcasts begin to appear • 1999 - TiVo & DVR

The 90’s
• By 1999, the average cost of a Hollywood movie was $53 million • Average cost of marketing was $25 million • A movie that made $100 million could conceivably be a financial bomb • Obsessive reporting of openings and grosses

The 90’s
• Number of releases cut • Costs cut • Studios take on production partners or co-financiers • Less $$ for studio as foreign rights are often handled by partner • Costs cut except for actors and special effects

The 90’s
• “Perk” epidemic
– Demi (“Gimme”) Moore and her support staff to promote $50 million flop, The Scarlet Letter, included a personal assistant, cook, makeup artist, hairdresser, trainer and three nannies at a cost of $877,000 – Two jets and two helicopters to get her on the David Letterman Show for G.I.Jane – Julia Roberts and her private plane on standby during Mary Reilly at a cost of $41k a month for three months – Bruce Willis and Kevin Costner bringing in SFX team to enhance their hairline

The 90’s
• Titanic, 1997
– Costliest film of all time (about $200 million) until …probably Avatar? – First cut was 3 hours – Re-built the Titanic in Mexico – Ship faced the wrong way so it was “flipped” – James Cameron forfeited his $8 million salary when studio became concerned about the budget – Own company, Digital Domain provided SFX including CGI extras

The 90’s
• Internationalization of industry continues
– Product has to do well in foreign markets – Verbal comedy and elaborate plots do not translate although slapstick comedy makes the leap – Everyone wants to “go Hollywood”

Who Owns What

The 90’s
• Repercussions
– Films for critical success or prestige disappear – Everything is designed to make $$ – Critical success left to art house studios like New Line, Miramax, October, Lions Gate, etc. who were often absorbed by larger mainstream studios

The 90’s
– Of all the major studios, only Disney remained a freestanding entity – Became it’s own multi-national corporation

The 90’s
• Miramax & Independent film
– Bob & Harvey Weinstein – Ran like an old-fashioned studio – Re-cut foreign films for American sensibilities – Took risks with unproven directors and unconventional material – Pioneered heavy advertising Oscar campaigns

The 90’s
• The Good:
– sex, lies & videotape, 1989 – kicked off the indie boom – Steven Soderbergh wrote it in 8 days – Bought by Miramax at Sundance, cost $1.2 million & made $25 million – Established commercial viability of indie films – Palme d’Or at Cannes

The 90’s
• The Good:
– Pulp Fiction, 1994 – Quentin Tarantino’s third film as a director (his first film is lost and only survives in fragments) – Never finished high school – Video store clerk – Palme d’Or at Cannes – Best Screenplay Oscar

The 90’s
• The Good:
– – – – – – – – – – Shakespeare in Love The English Patient Good Will Hunting Clerks Sling Blade Il Postino Life is Beautiful The Crying Game Chicago Scream & Halloween franchises

Miramax Box Office

The 90’s
• The Bad:
– Gangs of New York – All the Pretty Horses – Captain Corelli’s Mandolin – The Shipping News – Jersey Girl – Duplex – Reindeer Games – Cold Mountain – Kate & Leopold

The 90’s
• Art films can cost a lot of money too

The English Patient - $35 million & Shakespeare in Love - $26 Million

The 90’s
• The Indies and Niche Cinema
– Crossover of indie directors to mainstream - some did (Coen Brothers, Soderbergh, Tarantino) and some did not (Jim Jarmusch, Alison Anders, Nancy Savoca) and some work both sides

The 90’s
• The Indies and Niche Cinema
– African American
• Julie Dash, Leslie Harris, John Singleton

– Women
• Nancy Savoca, Allison Anders, Amy Heckerling, Penelope Spheeris

– Queer
• Rose Troche, Todd Haynes, Gregg Araki, Jennie Livingston

The 90’s
• Miramax sold to Disney in 1993 for $80 million • New Line sold to Time Warner, etc., etc. • Studios also open their own independent producing arms - Fox Searchlight, Sony Classics

The 90’s
• Sundance Film Festival
• Filmmakers: Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, Edward Burns and Jim Jarmusch • Films: The Blair Witch Project, Reservoir Dogs, Little Miss Sunshine, El Mariachi, Clerks, Thank You for Smoking, sex, lies, and videotape, The Brothers McMullen, Napoleon Dynamite • Independent fest started in 1979 is now an arm of Hollywood machine

The 90’s
• After fights over such films as Fahrenheit 9/11 and Dogma, The Weinsteins split from Disney in 2005 to found The Weinstein Company

The 90’s
• In 2009, Disney cut staff & reduced releases to 3 a year • Miramax officially died in January, 2010 after 31 years

The 90’s
• The Weinstein Company
– After lots of venture capital $$ and mediocre box office, company was restructured in 2009 wiping out a $450 million debt

The 90’s
• Dreamworks/SKG - 1994
– David Geffen of Geffen Records, Jeffrey Katzenberg of Disney, Steven Spielberg and Paul Allen (Microsoft) who cashed out in 2007 – Never lived up to expectations – DreamWorks Records sold in 2003 – Animation spun off in 2004 – Studio sold to Viacom (Parent co. of Paramount) 2006 – Split from Paramount in 2008, Geffen out & financing arranged through Bollywood's Reliance ADA Group – Distribution deal w/Disney in 2009 for live action (not including sequels to existing films – they stayed with Paramount) – Animation remains distributed through Paramount until 2012

The 90’s
• Marketing in the 90’s
– The Blair Witch Project, 1999 – Guerilla marketing campaign – Website – Claimed actors were “missing & presumed dead” in IMDB – Univ. of Central Florida grads Eduardo Sánchez and Daniel Myrick

http://www.blairwitch.com/

The 90’s
– – – – – – – – – Cost $22,000 to make Made $240 million Digital video Handheld camera Shot in 8 days by the actors themselves Improvised Actors believed mythology was real Directors gave them less food each day Most parodied movie ever probably

Blair Witch Parodies on YouTube

The 90’s
• Bound, dir. Andy Wachowski & Lana Wachowski (formerly The Wachowski Brothers), 1996 w/ Gina Gershon, Jennifer Tilly & Joe Pantoliano
– “In their world, you can't buy freedom, but you can steal it.” – The Matrix was made on the strength of this film – Pantoliano was instructed to base his character on Humphrey Bogart in Treasure of the Sierra Madre – Sex scenes were choreographed & tequila was consumed

The 90’s
• Wrote comic books • Re: The Matrix sequels they would not do press junkets or interviews and they would not have to be photographed for promotional purposes • Andy did all the press for Speed Racer so as not to alienate the family audience for Speed Racer

The 90’s

The 90’s
• Bill Pope (cinematographer) & the Wachowskis heavily influenced by Frank Miller’s Sin City

Review for Final
• Vertical Integration • Studio System • Dissolving of the Studio System – Paramount Decision • House Un-American Activities Committee & the Blacklist • Influence of current events on film • Economic Changes for Industry 1940’s to today • Genre - Classic vs Revisionist • Stylistic influences like Film Noir & Social Realism • Wide Screen, video & other technical innovations • Method Acting • Production Code – History & Influence of

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