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6-3: The French and Indian War, 1755-63

The last great British-French war fought in North America came to be called the French-Indian War. It started in America in 1755, swept across Germany, Africa, and Asia, and ended in America with the British smashing the Indians under Chief Pontiac in 1763. The worst fighting occurred in Germany and along the Hudson River in New York Province, British America.

Yo, Mr. Schreck, am I really supposed to do this?!

Be still, little man, Mr. Schreck, taught me how to driveso hell help you learn how to work and thinkso get busy!

First or last! I wanna drive fast!

Wooah! Wooah!

Oh please, RB, you know I can take you!

Schreck, lets back to the story. Were Mohawk braves, allied with Britain.

And were Delaware braves, once allied with Britain but now allied with France.

Super interested people see: www.britishbattles.com

The war started in 1755 when the British attempted to seize parts of French America without a formal declaration of war. The over-all British commander, in New York, was Sir Jeffery Amherst, veteran of many battles in Germany. Three fold plan: MG Braddock would attack north from Fort Cumberland, VA, with two regiments of regulars, a train of artillery, and VA Militia under COL George Washington and seize the French Ohio Valley Forts Duquesne, Machault, Le Beouf, and Presque Isle. Sir William Johnson will attack north from Fort William Henry with British

Regulars and NY Provincials to seize French Forts Carillon and St. Frederic.
BG Robert Monckton will attack north from Boston and Fort Lawrence and seize Fort Beusejour and French Acadia.

Lord Amherst

Brigadier Monckton

The preemptive attack was an utter failure as only 1/3 of the


objectives were secured: In fact, half of Braddocks expedition was annihilated 8 miles from Fort Duquesne and the French and Indians counter-attacked across the entire PA-VA back country, killing hundreds. And because PA didnt have a militia while the Quakers held power, the Scots-Irish and German settlers got walloped.

Johnsons army failed to take Fort Carillon but did not suffer serious
casualties. Monckton did take Fort Beusejour, and with it, the rest of French Acadia. These French Acajuns were ethnically cleansed and sent to New Orleans.

Uh, woops! Me and George Bush have something in common (preemptive attack and didnt go in big enough).

George II, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the American Plantations, Elector of Hanover

MG James Braddock

Men from Braddocks 44th and 48th regiments, which were raised in Ireland before sent to VA to be filled out. From Williamsburg, they marched out to Fort Cumberland and half of them were wiped out along the Monongahela in

western PA.

COL George Washington, commander, 1st VA Provincial

Regiment. His companies acted


as part of Braddocks light infantry corps.

SHENANGO
FT MACHAULT

KUSKUSKIES

MAHANONY

DELAWARES
KITTANNING
(SHINGAS) SAWCHUNK (TAMAQUA) OHIO

KISKIMINETAS FT DUQUESNE

CROGHANS POST

FT CUMBERLAND

Braddocks march over the Alleghenies from British Fort Cumberland to French Fort Duquesne.

French-allied Indian scouts watch as Braddocks army crosses the Mon.

French-allied Delaware scoutsone-time British allies

Braddocks lights get hammered in front and his heavies fail to charge through due to their inexperience. The French and Indian lights then zip around

flanks and surround British


heavies. British militia lights secure flanks and Braddock tries to take wooded hill on right but is repulsed. Braddock gets nailed

and orders the retreat which turns


into a route. Washington barley gets out with his command. It was a disaster. Lesson learned: better training of lights and heavies before going into battle.

Braddocks Field

QUEBEC

ALGONQUINS

MONTREAL

1755 British under Johnson drive up Ticonderoga buts fail to take French Fort Carillon
FREDERIC

Ticonderoga

CARILLON CARILLON

EDWARD
WM-HENRY ANNE

FT JOHNSON

ALBANY

British take French Acadia and ethnically cleanse the island, sending the French Acajuns to New Orleans.

With Braddocks defeat and the regulars subsequent withdrawal to New York City, the

entire Pennsylvania-Virginia back country is


left wide open and the French and their Indian allies raid as far east as the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg and hundreds are killed. Its called the Great

Run Away.

Because the Quakers in the PA provincial assembly refused to raise a militia, and the regulars abandoned them after kicking up a hornets nest, many German Lutheran/Reformed voters

finally joined the militant Scots-Irish Presbyterians and English


Anglicans under Franklin, formed their own private militias, and kicked the Quakers out of office in the NOV 1755 election. This is when the revolution in PA actually begins, although most failed to realize it at the time. viz., western ScotsIrish/Germans begin to seize power at the local level and will not want to give it backto anyone. Liberty or death and pass the ammo!

Although I am best known for my newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette, my electrical experiments (youre welcome), my volunteer fire fighter concept, the University of Pennsylvania, the Library Company of Philadelphia, loving women, being a key member of the Continental Congress, the PA Constitutional Convention and the US Constitutional Convention, I also founded the worlds first all-volunteer militia and began the rebellion in PA in 1755. Oopsie! Ask me why? Because I believe that man can forge his own destiny and future; that not all life is predestined.

LANCASTER ANGLICAN

LANCASTER PRESBYTERIAN

LANCASTER LUTHERAN

LANCASTER REFORMED

1756
Because Franklin and others took over the PA Assembly in NOV 1755, three regiments of Pennsylvania provincials were raised, local militias were organized, and forts were built for 1756. Once the frontier defenses were set, in SEPT 1756, LTC John Armstrongs western battalion heads over the mountains and burns the Delaware town of Kittanning, killing Chief Shingas himself.

Pennsylvania Provincial Forts 1755-56

Philadelphia Battery

As soon as Ben Franklin and his English Anglican, Scots-Irish Presbyterian, and German Lutheran/Reformed alliance take over the PA Assembly in late-1755, three regiments of provincial infantry are raised as well as 21 forts, the largest being Fort Augusta at the Fork of the Susquehanna. Most forts were simply fortified housescivil defense shelters. Franklin built the first ones, Allen and Franklin, in DEC 1755.

Pennsylvania Provincial Regiments


1st: Conrad Weiser (forts east of the Susquehanna) 2nd: John Armstrong (forts west of the Susquehanna) 3rd: William Burd (Fort Augustanorth)
Conrad Weiser

The Philadelphia Militia, led by Franklin himself, manned the Philadelphia Battery on a rotational/ volunteer fire fighter basis. Merchantmen armed their boats and patrolled down to the bay. In the western townships, volunteer militia companies were raised for home defense and to support the provincials or regulars if needed in the county.

Armstrongs 1756 Expedition


SHENANGO
FT MACHAULT

KUSKUSKIES

MAHANONY

DELAWARES
KITTANNING
(HK SHINGAS) SAWCHUNK (KING TAMAQUA) OHIO

KISKIMINETAS FT DUQUESNE

FT SHIRLEY

FT LITTLETON

FT CUMBERLAND

1757
This is when the war got big and Britain and its allies get hammered. In Germany, the Prussians drive south into Saxony and Moravia but are thrown back by the Austrians at Kolin; France invades Hanover and beats the British and her German allies at Hastenbeck, taking the electorate and giving it to the German Empress, Theresa, and Sweden invades

Prussian Pomerania. In America, the French drive


down Ticonderoga and take British Fort William Henry, killing most of the defenders.

Prussia Hanover Prussian Cleves

Hessia Berleburg

Imperial States, led by the House of Austria

Austrian-French goal: Hanover is stripped from the British Empire, Silesia is returned to Austria, all of the German states are loyal to the German Empress, and Sweden controls all of Pomerania.

Prussia Hanover Prussian Cleves

Hessia Berleburg

Imperial States, led by the House of Austria

The advance of the armies, 1757. Brandenburg-Prussia attacks across Saxony into Austrian Bohemia to capture its capital, Prague, to have it, like Silesia, removed from Austria but is thrown back at Kolin. In the west, a French army attacks across northern Germany and takes the Electorate of Hanover, one of Englands possessions, after the battle of Hastenbeck. In the north, Sweden drives into Prussian Pomerania. Brandenburg then counter-attacks at Rossbach in Saxony and Leuthen in Silesia and beats back the Austrians and their French allies.

Elector Frederick II of Brandenburg-Prussia at Prague

Hastenbeck

Wilhelm Augustus, Englands Duke of Cumberland and Prince of Hanover

Oberg

Cumberland

OBENSBURG

Broglie

French attack axis in the center with Obensburg in the background. Hastenbeck is to the left.

Grossly outnumbered and beaten, the Duke of Cumberland retreats


north toward Bremen and the sea, pleading with Elector Frederick II of Brandenburg-Prussia and the Duke of Brunswick, Karl, his only allies, for more help. But with the disaster at Kolin in Bohemia and the Swedish invasion of Pomerania, Frederick and Karl could not and would not send any support. Now surrounded at Kloster-Zeven, just northeast of imperial city of Bremen, the duke accepts the French surrender terms. The treaty stated that George II would renounce his claim on the electorate, all British troops (however small) leave Hanover, that Hanover join the rest of the empire against Brandenburg, Brunswick, and Hessia as part of the German Imperial

Army, and that Hanover remain occupied until the aforementioned was
put into effect.

QUEBEC

ALGONQUINS

MONTREAL

1757

French drive down Ticonderoga and destroy British Fort WM Henry the story in which Last

FREDERIC

CARILLON

EDWARD
WM-HENRY ANNE

of the Mohicans is
based.

And thats what you stinking English get for attacking us in 1755! Poo on yoo! Your mother smells like Elderberries!

ONONDAGAS

JOHNSONTON

ALBANY

1758
In Germany, Elector Frederick of BrandenburgPrussia reinforces Erbprinz Ferdinand zu Braunschweig to drive the French out of Hanover (and he does). The Prussians also drive the Swedes out and beat back the Ruskies in the east. In America, the British capture French Forts Duquesne and Louisbourg but get creamed at Fort Carillon MG

Abercrombie. i.e., the war turns.

Prussia Hanover Prussian Cleves

Hessia Berleburg

Imperial States, led by the House of Austria

In 1758, the Crown Prince of Brunswick drives the French out of NW Germany back to Koln. Frederick stops the Russians in the east, captures Swedish Pomerania, and drives the Austrians from Silesia.

Ja, mess mit mich, nits!

Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Erbprinz zu Braunschweig

1758

British take French Duquesne and Louisbourg but get murdered at Carillion.

Forbess 1758 Expedition


SHENANGO
FT MACHAULT

KUSKUSKIES

DELAWARES

MAHANONY

SAWCHUNK (KING TAMAQUA) OHIO

KISKIMINETAS FT PITT FT DUQUESNE

FT SHIRLEY

FT LIGONIER

FT LYTTLETON

Present Route 30

FT BEDFORD

FT LOUDEN

FT CUMBERLAND

British Fort Ligonier, built by Forbes

Lord Ligonier, CiC, Crown Forces

Royal Highlanders with Forbes, 1758

Let me cut his head off!

Its OK old chap, let the Frog live.

Oh, mon dieu! Help me mon ami!

QUEBEC

ALGONQUINS

MONTREAL

1758

Abercrombie drives up Ticonderoga and are slaughtered at the ramparts of Fort Carillon

FREDERIC

CARILLON

EDWARD
ANNE

FT JOHNSON

ALBANY

Nabby-Crambie murders his army; why kids like to wear his clothes nowadays are beyond me. I want my money back, Nabby-Crambie!

View of Ticonderoga

Drummer from the French Regiment du

Royale Rousillon at Fort


Carillon

Wolfe lands his army at Louisbourg, 1758

Wolfes Siege of Louisbourg. British artillerists wear blue faced red.

1759
This is when the British really wooped up on the French and basically win the war. In Germany, the French reinvade Hanover but are smashed by Prince Ferdinands allied army at the battle of Minden. In America, the British finally take French Forts Carillon and Frederic and in a master stroke, Quebec. Fort Pitt is built in the Ohio Country. In India, the French

lose two ports.

Embarrassed by the turn around, in 1759, the French king reinforced the Marquis de Contadess army in northern Germany and ordered him to counter-attack

and retake Hanover. By July, Contades had indeed


driven Ferdinand back, had captured the fortress city of Minden, and had even crossed the Weser River

into Hanover with one division, Le Duc de Broglies.


Once established, Contades planned to cross with the other division and head straight for Hanover

proper.

Instead of doing the expectedsuch as fighting the French in Hanover at a place like Hastenbeck Ferdinand decided to strike Contades on the western

side of the river and fight the battle there. He


planned to lure the French north with four German infantry BDEs while two British infantry BDEs and a

BDE each of British and German cavalry swept


behind the French and cut off their retreat back across the Weser River at Minden. If Ferdinand lost

on the western side of the river, his army would be


cut-off and destroyed.

Prince Ferdinand

HANOVER

HANOVER

THE BAIT

THE SNATCH

FRENCH CAV

Ferdinands Gamble

On AUG 1, 1759, Contades indeed took


Ferdinands bait as he ordered all 8 of his

infantry BDEs to attack the Hanoverians at


Todtenhausen (Dead Houses) at dawn to drive him back. Contades would then roll up Ferdinands right flank with his cavalry and pin him against the Weser River, killing his

petulant allied army.

HANOVER

HANOVER

At this point, the British infantry BDEs were supposed to attack forward to allow Lord George Sackville, commander of Ferdinands cavalry, to dart forward and take Minden, cutting off the French. But the march order got messed up (the cavalry went first) and Sackville refused to charge because the French CAV was in his way. He therefore decided to wait for the right time. Meanwhile, the Hessians

fought like tigers and the British BDEs moved up


through an apple orchard and onto the ridgeline.

The French spotted this move, and wanting to roll up Ferdinands left, sent in their cavalry against the British infantry BDEs.

British 20th Infantry Regiment (Lancashires), Kingsleys 2nd BDE. Before the battle, the British infantry picked roses and put them in their hats. It was a

symbol of life.

HANOVER

What happened next became one of the more famous episodes of British military history as the British IN stopped three French CAV assaults while

their own cavalry, under Sackville, did nothing.

12th British (Suffolks) Regiment, 1st BDE, Sprckens DIV

Now Sackville! Now! I shall not waste His Majestys CAV in a suicide mission!

Sie sind ein Idiot!


HANOVER

British 12th (Royal Suffolks) Regiment at Minden, repelling the French cavalry attack on the left

British 37th Foot (Royal Hampshires) at Minden.

British Grenadiers at Minden

At this point, the British infantry BDEs


break through, then the Hessians, and the whole French line begins to collapse. Ferdinand orders Sackville to take Minden now but Sackville simply advances to protect the British infantrys flank.

Wo ist Sackville?! Angreifen!

HANOVER

Poo-doo! Lowly peasants!

Lord George Sackville


disgraced himself at the battle of Minden when he refused to charge and block

the French retreat because


of his own aristocratic arrogance. Cashiered after the battle, be retired to his estate until George III appointed him in 1775 to be Lord Germaine, Secretary of the American Colonies and Plantations to crush the Whiggish rebels in America. In this, he also failed.

Because Sackville refused to move, the French army was able to escape and retreat back into Mnster, a German state still loyal to the empress. During the

battle, Fredericks allied army suffered 2,600


casualties of which half were from the two gallant British BDEs. The British right flank regiments, the

Suffolks and Lancashires, suffered particularly


heavily. The French suffered some 5,000 casualties, especially during their panicked retreat across the

Bastau military bridges.

But what a lost opportunity, Sackville!

HANOVER

Hessians at Minden

Meanwhile, in America, the Delawares renewed their alliance with the British and Fort Pitt, in the back ground, is built to maintain British hegemony in the region. It becomes a major Indian trading post and Americas Gateway to the West.

Whats left of Fort Pitt: the power magazine. Old Three Rivers Stadium across the Allegheny River in old Allegheny City.

QUEBEC

ALGONQUINS

MONTREAL

1759

British under Lord Amherst drive up Ticonderoga, take Carillon and Frederic and Quebec falls to Wolfe.

CROWN POINT FREDERIC

TICONDEROGA CARILLON

EDWARD
ANNE

FT JOHNSON

Take that you French froggy! I told you that you couldnt fight!

ALBANY

1. MG James Ill burn your town down Wolfe, veteran of Germany, savage of Scotland, victor of Louisbourg and Quebec, KIA at Quebec. 2. Grenadier from the 60th Regiment (Royal Americans) which consisted of French, German, Italian, British, Irish, and American recruits. Part of Forbess command.

3. Light infantryman from the 40th Regiment, part of Amhersts command.

The key to New France: Quebec

Wolfes desperate gamble: he lands his forces west of Quebec and fights out in the open. The French stupidly oblige and are smeared.

Wolfes light artillery and Frasers Highlanders in front of Quebec.

Quebec was a head on fight. As such, the British will win every time. Sorry!

The Death of Wolfe. Neither British-allied Indians nor British-American provincials were at Quebec, but this work reflects the different players during the war in the American theater.

The Death of Wolfe

1760
In Germany, the French try to once again take Hanover. This time they attacked up through Hessia to avoid Ferdinands

strong lines in Mnster. At Warburg, just south of Kassel,


the Hessian capital, they are once again thrown back. Ferdinand then attacks south through Mnster and creams

them at Klster Kamp. Sweden then drops out of the war


because it lost its German possessions to Prussian attacks. In America, Montreal falls to British guns and all French trade is cut-off to the Indians. The war looks like it will be a clear-cut victory for Britain, etc.

Prussia Hanover Prussian Cleves

Hessia Berleburg

Sacre! My army is even getting beat next door by an inferior force!

Imperial States, led by the House of Austria

In 1760, the French try to attack Hanover by swinging up through Hessia but are stopped at Warburg. Ferdinand then drives the French back across the Rhine near Kln. Sweden drops out of the war.

1760
Battle of Warburg JUL 31, 1760, south of Kassel, Hessia. 20,000 French try to attack Hanover by swinging up through Hessia but 16,000 British, Hanoverian, and Hessian soldiers drive them back.

15th British Dragoons

1760
The Battle of Klster Kamp OCT 15, 1760, along the Rhine River near Wesel, Mnster. Ferdinands 20,000 drives 25,000

French to the west side of the Rhine.

QUEBEC

ALGONQUINS

MONTREAL

1760

British take Montreal and seize Canada.

CROWN POINT

TICONDEROGA

EDWARD
ANNE

ONONDAGAS

FT JOHNSON

ALBANY

1761
With Canada conquered, the war winds down in America and most British regulars are sent to Germany to finish

France. Many of the French-allied Indians choose to fight


on, however, to try to bring the French back. They are loosely led by the Ottowa chief Pontiac. Indian raids occur all along the back country again and the Pennsylvania Militia is called up because most of the regulars had pulled out. In Germany, the French once again advance across Mnster but are again beaten back by Ferdinand (reinforced) at the battle of Vellighausen on JUL 15, 1761.

1762-63
France makes one last push against Hanover but is once again defeated at the battle of Wilhelmstahl on JUN 24, 1762, in

Mnster and the Austrians and Russians drop out of the war. In
1763, France and Britain reach formal treaty terms and the Indians give up after the British burn several of their villages, learn of the final French defeat, and are promised a giant reservation west of the Allegheny Mountains with good trade terms. In the final treaty, France gives up all of North America to Britain, several islands in the Caribbean, two ports in Africa,

and two ports in India. Rule Britannia! The largest maritime


empire the world has ever seen!

British 5th Regiment (Northumberland Fusiliers) at Wilhelmstahl

One day I will unite the empire under my house and your French buddies wont be able to help you then, either!

Prussia Hanover Prussian Cleves

Hessia Berleburg

My army stinks!

Imperial States, led by the House of Austria

I quit, Frederick, you rogue! Go ahead and keep Silesia and keep the German Empire divided with your British buddies! My French ally stinks.

In 1762, Russia and the German Empire drop out of the war knowing that France is finished. Prussia will keep Silesia and will continue to undermine the Empress Theresa.

In order to stop Pontiacs Rebellion of 176163, the British give the Indians a giant reservation (pink) without the consent of its American provincial assemblies. Quebec province is also carved out, as well as East and West Florida, which have royal military governors; Nova Scotia is expanded. This is generally called the Proclamation of 1763.

During Pontiacs War, Matthew Smiths rebel militia from Paxtang TWP came into Lancaster to kill off what was left of the Conestoga Indians on Conestoga Manor and in the Lancaster Jail. Called the Conestoga massacre. These guys will lead the rebellion in northern Lancaster County (present Dauphin).

EQ
Who won the French and Indian War 1755-63? Summarize the war. W5 (who, what, where, when, why) did the war turn? Which side would you have preferred to been on and why? What was the coolest battle/engagement? Neater? America or Germany? Outcome/change from the war?