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Turning & Boring

General Manufacturing Processes Engr.-20.2710 Instructor - Sam Chiappone

Turning & Boring

Turning is the process of machining external cylindrical and conical surfaces. The process uses a machine tool called a lathe. Boring is the process of enlarging an existing hole or internal cylindrical surface. This can be accomplished on a lathe or a machine tool specifically designed for the process; such as a horizontal boring machine.

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Turning & Boring

Some of the main reasons for utilizing this process include:


Concentricity between features External thread to shaft diameter Part tolerance Surface finish Part features

Turning typically involves roughing procedures followed by a finishing operation.


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Process Calculations

Rpm calculation
RPM CS

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Process Calculations

Feed is typically a given distance per revolution. This value is dependent on the operation, depth of cut, cutting speed, tool material, surface finish---etc. Units are--- in. per rev (in./rev)

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Turning Operations

Turning operations performed on a lathe include:


Straight turning Taper turning End facing Shoulder facing

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Turning Operations
Facing Grooving Form turning Parting-off

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Turning Operations
Threading Knurling Drilling Reaming Milling-CNC turning centers

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Lathe Components

Bed
foundation of the lathe

Headstock
Mounted on the ways Consists of the:
Hollow spindle Bearings Transmission gears

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Lathe Components

Spindle
Carries the workholders Hole to accept long work or bar stock

Tailstock
Lower portion of casting fits inner ways Can slide longitudinally
Locks at desired location Tailstock quill
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Lathe Components

Carriage
Along with the apronprovides the base for mounting and moving cutting tools

Cross slide
Mounted to the carriage and provides movement for facing and cut-off operations.

Compound rest
Mounted to the cross slide. Can rotate for angle cuts. This is the component that holds the tool post for cutting tools.
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Lathe Components

Feed rod
Provides forward and reverse motion for carriage and cross slide.

Lead screw
Used for threading purposes. Engages with the half-nut to provide correct feed specific lead of thread.

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Machine Classification

Size designation
Swing - maximum diameter that can be rotated on the lathe
2xs distance from spindle center line to ways

Maximum distance between centers

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Types of Lathes

Speed
Simple construction of a head stock and tail stock with a tool post. Used for wood turning, metal polishing, or metal spinning.

Engine
Most frequently used lathe Heavy duty power drive for most tool movements Size range 12x24 to 24x48 - can be larger
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Types of Lathes

CNC
Computer controlled Wide variety of process capability multiple axis Indexing and contouring head On- line and off- line programming available

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Types of Lathes

Toolroom
Greater accuracy More versatility Wider range of speeds and feeds

Turret
Hex turret replaces tailstock Multiple tools set to machine part High production rates Still may require some operator skill
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Types of Lathes

Automatic
Similar to turret Eliminate operator control of machine Capable of simultaneous cuts Can be a cam controlled mechanism Can be single spindle or multiple spindle

Tracer
Hydraulic attachment used to copy the shape of a part from a master.
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Types of Lathes

2
3
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Cutting Tools for Lathes

External
Right hand turning Left hand turning Round nose turning Cut-off Left hand facing

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Cutting tools for Lathes

External (cont)
Broad nose finishing Right hand facing Threading Form Boring Threading Grooving Form
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Internal

Workholding on a Lathe

Between centers
Live-tailstock Dead-headstock Face plate Drive dog

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Workholding on a Lathe

Chuck
3,4, or 6 jaw Soft jaws

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Workholding on a Lathe

Collect system

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Workholding on a Lathe

Others
Face driver system Sub-spindle system

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