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Chapter 7

A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object. An attitude is:
Lasting because it tends to endure over time. General because it applies to more than a momentary event.


Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as:

Very product-specific behaviors, and More general consumption-related behaviors.

The Functions of Attitudes

Value-Expressive Consumers Values or Self-Concept


By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefits it Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging.
Utilitarian Reward and Punishment

Attitude Functions
Knowledge Need for Meaning, Order & Structure Ego-Defensive Protect Person From Threats

The ABC Model of Attitudes

Way a Consumer Feels


Persons Intentions to Do

Components of an Attitude

Consumers Beliefs

Hierarchies of Effects
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Beliefs Affect


ATTITUDE Based on Cognitive Information Processing


Low-Involvement Hierarchy
Beliefs Behavior Affect

ATTITUDE Based on Behavioral Learning Processes

Experiential Hierarchy
Affect Behavior Beliefs

ATTITUDE Based on Hedonic Consumptio n

Attitudes Toward the Advertisement

The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion. Determinants Include:
Attitude Toward Advertiser Evaluations of the Ad Execution Itself Mood Evoked by the Ad


Degree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers Arousal Levels

Forming Attitudes
An Attitude can form in several different ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects and how the attitude is learned. It can occur because of:
Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle. Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced. Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures.


Forming Attitudes
Levels of Commitment to an Attitude
Degree of Commitment




The Consistency Principle

Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements.

Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values


States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take some action to resolve this dissonance. Theory focuses on situations in which two Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one another.
Cognitive Elements can be something that a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings.

Dissonance reduction can occur either by eliminating, adding, or changing elements.

Social Judgment Theory

Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection
Assimilation Attitude Anchor Contrast


Latitude of Acceptance Latitudes of Rejection

Balance Theory


Considers Relations Among Elements a Person Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be Harmonious, or Balanced.
A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - )

Some Other Person or Object

An Attitude Object

Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance.

Multiattribute Attitude Models


Models Assume That a Consumers Attitude (Evaluation) of an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has About Several or Many Attributes of the Object.



Importance Weights

The Fishbein Model

The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes:
Salient Beliefs About the Object That Are Considered During Evaluation Object-Attitude Linkages, or The Probability That a Particular Object Has an Important Attribute


Evaluation of Each

of the Important Attributes


Fishbein Model
Formed by integrating (summing) the separate evaluations of the salient beliefs (ei), weighted by the strength of each beliefs (bi), to create an overall evaluation or attitude (Ao). Ao = Sbiei


How Beliefs Are Acquired

Direct experience with product. Information processing information from outside sources (friends) Vicarious experience Inferences

Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model

Strengthen Perceived Product / Attribute Linkages


Capitalize on Relative Advantage

Influence Competitors Ratings

Add a New Attribute


Attitude-Behavior Relationship
Weak empirical relationship between attitude and behavior Why? Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment.

Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior

The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the Theory of Reasoned Action and Includes the Following Modifications:


Intentions Versus Behavior

Social Pressure

Attitude Toward Buying


The Theory of Reasoned Action

Reflects the assumption that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative actions and choose the behavior which leads to the most desirable consequences.

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior




Locus of Control


Basic Assumptions

Attitude Accessibility

Theory of Trying


States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal. Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As:
Amount of Control Over Situation Expectations of Success or Failure Social Norms Attitudes Toward the Process of Trying Frequency of Past Trying of Behavior

Recentness of Past Trying of Behavior

Tracking Attitudes Over Time


Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include:
Changes in Different Age Groups
Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects

Scenarios About the Future

Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy

Identification of Change Agents