High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Sattwik Suman Das Shashank S Tanveer Ali

AE 412: Aerospace Vehicle Design

Requirements
• • • • • Border patrol for 6400 sq.km. Operational Ceiling-19.8 km (65000 ft) Maximum speed-147 km/hr Endurance-40 hours (Loiter) Conventional Runway takeoff (Maximum 600m)

Mission Profile .

Data link: (l-3 communications) :1kg Source: http://www. Electro-Optic-Infrared Sensor: 23 kg (APM UAV Payloads) 3.gov/RADAR/index. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR): Sandia Labs MiniSAR -14 kg 2.sandia.html .Payload (maximum weight 113kg) 1.

Initial sizing • Weight fractions for the various operational phases were computed* • Iteration using MATLAB® *Reference: “Airplane Design” by Jan Roskam .

Existing UAV data UAV RQ-1A Predator RQ-2B Pioneer Prowler Gnat 750 Heron Kentron RPV-2 Shadow 200 Shadow 600 Raptor-low Vixen Exdrone Freewing RQ-5A Hunter E-Hunter Hermes 450 WTO (kg) 2250 452 200 1126 2425 529 316 584 1880 200 91 383 1600 2100 992 WE (kg) 1150 304 117 560 1323 323 200 327 810 140 71 253 1190 1430 441 .

ln(WTO) ln(WE) Weight is found to be 1800 kg .

Aerodynamic efficiency 3. Off design aerodynamic characteristics . Maximum Lift Coefficient 2.Airfoil selection • Criterion: 1.

Databases Used • David Lednicer’s The Incomplete guide to Airfoil Usage • UIUC Airfoil Co-ordinates Database Program Used • Martin Hepperle’s JAVAFOIL .

Airfoils considered • NACA 5 digit 63 series and 23 series • NASA General Aviation airfoil series • Selected airfoil: NACA 23015 • Source: Airfoil Investigation Database .

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Wing Design • Low/mid wing • No sweep back • Fowler flaps .

Constraint analysis .

Constraint analysis. Contd… .

Roadblock • We get Power required as over 200 hp • IC engines cannot be used .

pwc.ca/en/engines/pt6a .Solution? • Turboprop Pratt and Whitney Canada PT 6A Source: http://www.

15 kg .5 • Weight of the UAV is obtained as weight of the UAV as 1579.Initial sizing II • Using DARCORP’s Advanced Aircraft Analysis v2.

H Tail ii. V Tail Typical H Tail Why V Tail? Typical V Tail Image Courtesy: https://www.de/ism/forschung/ag-flzg/projektealt/nefa .tubraunschweig.Tail Sizing • Tails Considered: i.

Landing Gear: Tire sizing • We have used Raymer’s statistical method • Assumption: Front tires carry 10 % of the aircrafts weight and back tires carry the remaining 90% • 25+7 % margin .

• Propeller diameter 2. which allows the payloads to be placed in the front part of the fuselage.3m .Configuration and layout • Pusher configuration: i. Reduces the skin friction drag because the pusher location allows the aircraft to fly in undisturbed air. Frees up the nose of the aircraft. ii. iii. Allows a reduction in the aircraft wetted area by shortening the fuselage.

wing and tails.Disadvantages of Pusher configuration • The propeller has a reduced efficiency because it is forced to work with the disturbed airflow from fuselage. . • It requires a longer landing gear because the aft location causes the propeller to dip closer to the runway as the nose is lifted for take-off.

Layout • Fuel tanks are inside the wings .

we have the take-off weight as 1547.889 kg.Refined sizing • We use Raymer’s formula for a turboprop aircraft • From refined sizing. .

Material selection • Fuselage: Composites inspired by Predator • Wing skin: Al 2024 alloy clad with Zinc alloy for corrosion resistance • Why? .

Weight estimation • With Reserve fuel fraction of 5% .

CG estimation .

3d views using Google Sketchup 8 .

Future Prospects • Limited Variable Configuration • Longer Range • Additional Payloads .

Thank You .

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