 The process of selecting and organizing visual

elements and the product of that process  In two-dimensional arts, this organization is referred as to composition.

 Unity and Variety

 Balance
 Emphasis and Subordination

 Directional Forces
 Contrast  Repetition and Rhythm  Scale and Proportion

 It describes the feeling that all the elements in a work belong together and make up a coherent and harmonious whole. Unity and Variety are complementary with each other  Unity is the appearance or condition of oneness. .

 Pattern refers to a repetitive ordering of design elements. . acts to counter unity  Balance between unity and variety creates life. Variety provides diversity.

Going Home by Jacob Lawrence .

Interior of a Dutch House by Pieter de Hooch .

Chariot by Alberto Giacometti .

 The achievement of equilibrium  A painting can depict an act of violence or imbalance-a frenzied battle or a fall from a tight rope  Two types of balance: Symmetrical (formal) and Asymmetrical (informal) .

 It is the achievement of equilibrium. in which acting influences are held in check by opposing forces . Balance is both a visual issue and a structural necessity.

 Symmetrical Balance  The near or exact matching of left and right sides of a three- dimensional form or a two-dimensional composition.  It is useful in architecture because it is easier to comprehend than asymmetry. .  It imposes a balanced unity and connotes permanence and poise.

A President’s House By: James Hoban 1793-1794 .

Portrait of the Hung-Chih Emperor .

various elements are balanced—according to their size and meaning—around a felt or implied center of gravity. . Asymmetrical Balance  The left and right sides are not the same instead.

Evening Glow of the Ando by Suzuki Haranobu .

The Holy Family on the Steps by Nicolas Poussin .

. Emphasis is used to draw our attention to an area or areas.  If that area is a specific spot or figure. it is called focal point.

 Through subordination. . an artist creates neutral areas of lesser interest that keeps us from being distracted from the areas of emphasis.

The Holy Family on the Steps by Nicolas Poussin .

 Directional Forces influence the attention we pay to parts of an artwork. .  These are “paths” for the eye to follow provided by actual or implied lines.

Bullfight by Francisco Goya .

 Without contrast. . It is the juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements. visual experience would be monotomous.

Luster-Painted Bowl .

continuity. The repetition of visual elements give a composition of unity. . flow and emphasis  Rhythm is created through the regular recurrence of elements with related variations.

Madonna of The Chair by Raphael Sanzio .

Cranes by Ogata Korin .

Zapatistas by Jose Clemente Orozco .

 Proportion is the size relationship of parts to a whole  Format refers to the size and shape of a two- dimensional picture plane  The use of unnatural proportions to show the relative importance of figures is called Hierarchical scale . Scale is the size relation of one thing to another.

Shuttlecocks By Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen .

Rembrandt van Rijn’s self-portrait .

Pieta by Michelangelo Buonarroti .

Poland .Pieta St. Mary’s Church.

Sistine Chapel: Creation by Michelangelo .

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