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Ketua Program Kejuruteraan Mekanikal Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal Politeknik Merlimau Melaka

Benjamin Bloom
 In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning..

.. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level.the recall of information .

 Cognitive  Affective  Psychomotor . Bloom identified 3 “domains” of learning that apply to the student.

as the lowest level. from the simple recall or recognition of facts. through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels. .The Cognitive Domain  Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain. to the highest order which is classified as evaluation.


The Affective Domain  Attitudes  Interests  Values .


The Psychomotor Domain  Neuromuscular control and coordination  Hands on applications .


BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN INTRODUCTION Bloom created a taxonomy for categorising the level of abstraction of learning contents . The taxonomy provides a useful structure for the categorising of  Questions  Activities  Products .

Bloom et al completed their work on the cognitive domain. which involves the recall or recognition of facts.In 1956. The result was a 6-level hierarchy identified within the cognitive domain. through to the highest level. . The levels progressed from the simplest level. which involves the evaluation of facts. which involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This hierarchy became known as Bloom’s Taxonomy.

1. 3. 2.The six levels of the cognitive domain from the most used and simplest level (1) to the most complicated level (6). 5. Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation . 4. 6.

memorise. list. places. recall. label. reproduce. state. .)  Recall of major events  Mastering subject material  Verbs typically used at this level  Arrange.LEVEL 1: KNOWLEDGE  Remembering previously learnt material without necessarily understanding or using it  Skills required  Recall of information  Factual knowledge (dates. numbers etc. name.. define. write….

select…. report. restate. review. indicate. describe. locate. illustrate. .LEVEL 2: COMPREHENSION  Skills required  Understanding facts and meaning  Interpretation of facts  The ability to understand or grasp the meaning of the learning material without necessarily relating it to something else  Ordering and grouping causes  Prediction of consequences  Verbs typically used for this level of activities  Classify. explain.

. employ. use…. new and concrete situations  Skills required  Utilisation of facts  Using known methods. choose. solve.  Solving problems with newly acquired knowledge or skills Verbs used in activities at this level include:  Apply. construct. sketch.LEVEL 3: APPLICATION  The ability to utilise the learnt material in different. operate. concepts and hypothesis in new situations. schedule. interpret. demonstrate. .

categorise. discriminate. criticise. differentiate. test…… . calculate. experiment. examine.  Skills required     Organisation of the material’s components Finding patterns Finding concealed meanings Recognition of the components of the whole  Verbs typically used for the analytical level  Analyse. contrast.LEVEL 4: ANALYSIS  The ability to break the whole into its components and to understand the organisational arrangement of the material. compare.

invent. compose. design. develop. formulate. plan. hypothesise. prepare.LEVEL 5: SYNTHESIS  The ability to rearrange the components of the learning material to form a whole new unit  Skills required:  Construction of a new whole from the known material elements  Creating generalizations from the patterns  Relation of fact from different areas  Making predictions and drawing conclusions  Verbs used to indicate synthetic level activities and questions  Create. set up…… .

predict……. . select. recommend. value.LEVEL 6: EVALUATION  The ability to judge the value and impact of the given facts  Skills required  Comparing and discriminating between facts  Verification of the values concerning the factual content  Making choices on reasoning  Assessing the values of presentations and hypothesis  Recognising subjectivity  Verbs typically used for this level of the cognitive domain:  Judge. appraise. critique. support.

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