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Textile Industry

History

1626, from L. textilis "woven, fabric, cloth," noun use of textilis "woven," from texere "to

weave," *tek- "to make".

c.1425, "network, structure," from M.Fr., from L. textura "web, texture, structure," from stem of textere "to weave," (cf. Skt. taksati "he fashions, constructs," taksan "carpenter;" Avestan taa "ax, hatchet," thwax- "be busy;" O.Pers. tax- "be active;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art;" O.C.S. tesla "ax, hatchet;" Lith. tasau "to carve;" O.Ir. tal "cooper's ax;" O.H.G. dahs, Ger. Dachs "badger," lit. "builder;" Hittite taksh- "to join, unite, build"). Meaning "structural character" is recorded from 1660

No one knows exactly when the spinning and weaving of textiles began Some Archeological finds indicate 27,000 years ago people knew weaving before domesticating animals The oldest fragment of white cloth probably

linen found in southern Turkey 7000 BC

Sandals made from fibers 6000 B.C. found in caves in Missouri. People used natural fibers hand processed to make cloth with limited technology, skilled weavers created wide variety fabrics

Simple, plain homespun cloth used daily, were strictly utilitarian . Others elaborately patterned, printed, dyed for beauty More complex social and political organizations evolved Cities, nations, empires, technology, international trade involved textiles

Chinese silk the most prized items of commerce, first reached ancient Greece and Rome along the silk route in the latter part of the second century B.C. Silk may have reached ancient Egypt 1000 B.C. Romans

imported cotton from Egypt and India

Archeologists found facilities for dyeing and finishing cotton fabrics in settlements throughout the Roman world During Middle Ages production and trading of the plant called woad, important source of dye, was a highly developed industry. Crusaders returned from Middle East to
Europe with luxurious silk and cotton fabrics

foreign novelties became important in international trade. During fifteenth century, Trade Fairs in southern France provided place for exchange of wools from England and silks from Middle East. Economic activities surrounding these events gave rise to first international banking arrangements. Discovery of America was result of Europeans finding faster route to spices also to Oriental textiles

Textile trade quickly took root in America, as colonists sold native dyes such as indigo and cochineal to Europe and bought cottons from India
Indigo dye is with a distinctive blue color produced synthetically Important in many countries' economies natural blue dyes are rare Cochineal insect gives traditional red dye of Mexico Woad called dyer's woad, flowering plant, natural blue dyes

In spite advances made in technology of textile production, cloth manufacture in Western Europe in 1700 was still by hand Yarns were spun on spinning wheel and fabrics woven by hand-operated looms

A major reorganization of manufacturing occurred during the latter half of the 1700s in Western Europe known as Industrial Revolution
Altered technology, social, economic, cultural life Textiles were first to undergo industrialization during the seventeenth eighteenth centuries resulting from economic crisis

Good quality textile products, produced inexpensively in India and the Far East, were gradually replacing European goods in the international market . In Britain it became imperative that some means be found to increase domestic production, to lower costs, and to improve the quality of textiles

The solution was found in the substitution of machine or nonhuman power for hand processes and human power. Many important inventions, most importantly spinning machines, automatic looms, and the cotton gin, improved the output and quality of fabrics

These inventions provided the technological base for the industrialization of


the textile industry

Each invention improved one step of the process driven first by waterpower, then by steam, and finally by electricity fully mechanized by the early part of the

nineteenth century

The ginning process removes the seeds from the cotton fiber Ginned cotton is normally put into bales, and shipped to the cotton mill

When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable

matter In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is
sent through a picker.

The cotton comes off the picking machine in large bats, and is then taken to carding machines Carders line up the fibers nicely to make them easier to spin.

The cotton is fed into the machine and gets beaten with a beater bar, to loosen it up. The cotton then collects on a screen and gets fed through various rollers, which serve

to remove the vegetable matter.

The cotton leaves the carding machine in

the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibers. Next, several slivers are combined for a more consistent size

Since combining several slivers produces a very thick rope of cotton fibers, directly after being combined the slivers are separated into rovings used in the spinning process Roving is about the width of a pencil.

The spinning machines stake the roving,

thin it and twist it, creating yarn Plying is done by pulling yarn from two or more bobbins and twisting it together, in the opposite direction than that in which it was spun Optional

The next major developments in the field were in the chemists laboratory Synthesis of dyestuffs in laboratory rather than from natural plant materials led to development and use of synthetic dyes in latter half of the

nineteenth century

Other experiments proved certain natural materials could be dissolved in chemical solvents and re-formed into fibrous form Used to produce artificial silk now rayon from celluloid materials wood chips cotton
linters By 1910 the first plant for manufacturing rayon established in U S

Manufactured textile fibers industry Since enormous advances in making fibers, spinning into yarns, constructing fabrics, and coloring and finishing them. Utilizes complex technology based on scientific processes

and vast economic organizations

Advanced technology Textile use has expanded from the traditional areas of clothing and home furnishings into the fields of construction, medicine, aerospace, sporting goods, and industry. Scientists engineer textile fibers, yarns, fabrics for specific uses

Strides in new directions, fabrics consumers buy for clothing and household use also benefit from development of new fibers, new methods of yarn and fabric construction, and new finishes for existing fibers and fabrics.

Today, huge international industrial complex encompasses production of fiber, spinning of yarns, fabrication of cloth, dyeing, finishing, printing, and manufacture of goods Consumers purchase many different products made of textiles A complex network of interrelated industries

Textile Industry
Development Mills and Companies

English inventors in the 18th century began to automate processes including carding
spinning and weaving James Hargreaves developed Spinning Jenny, device which replaced eight hand spinners in single operation

Richard Arkwright assembled these processes and started first factory on Derwent River Cromford England 1771Following American Revolution, several founding fathers felt manufacturing remain in England Alexander Hamilton felt otherwise and wanted to establish model mill village in Paterson, New jersey. His ideas were ahead of time The "National Manufactory" went out of business in 1796

Samuel Slater of Rhode Island visited several mills owned by Arkwright assoc, memorized essential features and returned to the US. In 1792, he opened a yarn spinning mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island First successful automated spinning in US

1814, James Cabot Lowell of Boston built factory in Waltham up Charles River

from Boston. Later, the Boston Assoc built entire mill town on the Merrimack River later named "Lowell" in memory

1793,Eli Whitney and Hogden Holmes developed simplified method of removing cotton lint from seed Whitney, especially Holmes' saw tooth gin, revolutionized the cotton industry by dramatically increasing productivity of cotton ginning

In the early 1800s, cotton was raised in the southern U S and exported to mills in north and England Leaders William Gregg South Carolina advocated home-based textile industry for the south but time was not right. Northern mills resisted growth outside New England. Textile machinery was built in New England, New Jersey and imported from Europe

After Civil War South slowly replaced slaves with free workers. The industry remained
largely in north until after 1880s. Leaders such as Edwin Michael Holt and family of Alamance County, North Carolina built mills in large numbers throughout south as 19th century closed

Glencoe Cotton Mill and mill village are preserved today. Textile heritage museum Cotton mills in New England began to decline Merchants contracted for goods through agents Machinery was imported from the north and Europe

World War I and the naval blockage imposed by England on German shipping, and German U-boats to harass English vessels brought the realization that US must be independent of England and Germany for machinery and dyestuffs New companies emerged as war effort and remained strong
for several decades after war

World War II again emphasized selfsufficiency. Following war imported machinery and dyes, especially German and Swiss supplemented and eventually replaced domestic supply. American textile companies thrived with imported machinery and dyestuffs. 1990s, new order began to replace Made in USA. Buying from lowest cost producer drove many manufacturers out of production. Manufacturing changed to imports marketing companies.

Textile Industry
Machinery Leads

During early eighteenth century, Great Britain was determined to dominate the textile industry. Laws forbade export of textile machinery, drawings, specifications that allowed construction outside Britain had power loom, steam-powered, mechanically-operated regular loom, spinning frame that produced stronger threads for yarns faster

Meanwhile stories of these machines excited envy. Americans were struggling to improvise old hand loom, in every house, to make sort of spinning machine to replace the spinning wheel by which one thread at a

time was laboriously spun.

1786,Massachusetts, two Scotch immigrants, claimed to be familiar with Richard Arkwright's British-made spinning frame were employed to design and build spinning machines for mass production of yarn, encouraged by US Gov assisted with grants. The resulting machines, operated by horse power were crude and textiles irregular and unsatisfactory

In Providence, Rhode Island another company tried to build spinning machines with thirty-two spindles. They worked badly and all attempts to run them by water-power failed In 1790, the faulty machines were sold to Moses Brown of Pawtucket. Brown and his partner, William Almy, employed enough hand-loom weavers to produce eight thousand yards of cloth a year by hand

Brown needed working spinning machinery, to provide his weavers with more yarn, however machines he bought were lemons. In 1790, there was not a single successful

power-spinner in the United States.

Textile industry was founded by the work and importance of the following businessmen, inventors, and inventions

Samuel Slater has been called both the "Father of American Industry" and the "Founder of the American Industrial Revolution." Slater built several successful cotton mills in New England and established the town of Slatersville, Rhode Island.

Francis Cabot Lowell was an American businessman and founder of the world's first textile mill. Together with inventor Paul Moody, Lowell created a more efficient

power loom and a spinning apparatus.

Before invention of sewing machine, most sewing was done in homes, however, many people offered services as tailors or seamstresses in small shops where wages were very low. One inventor was struggling to put into metal an idea to lighten the toil of those who lived by the needle
Elias Howe

It was not until after the power-driven sewing machine was invented, that factory production of clothes and shoes on a large scale occurred

The major steps in manufacture of clothes first to harvest and clean the fiber or wool; second, to card it and spin it into threads; third, to weave the threads into cloth; and, finally to fashion and sew the cloth into clothes From earliest hand-held spindle and distaff and basic hand loom to the highly automated spinning machines and power looms of today, the principles of turning vegetable fiber into cloth have remained constant

Today we also spin complex synthetic fibers, but they are still woven together the way cotton and flax were millennia ago

Several inventions in textile machinery occurred in relatively short time period during Industrial Revolution

1733 Flying Shuttle invented by John Kay improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster 1742 Cotton mills were first opened in England. 1764 Spinning Jenny invented by James Hargreaves - first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel 1764 Water Frame invented by Richard Arkwright - first powered textile machine.

1769Arkwright patented the water frame

1770Hargreaves patented Spinning Jenny 1773 first all-cotton textiles were produced in factories 1779Crompton invented Spinning Mule that allowed for greater control over the weaving

process

1785Cartwright patented the Power Loom Improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813 1787Cotton goods production had increased 10 fold since 1770 1789 Samuel Slater brought textile machine design to the US 1790 Arkwright built first steam powered textile factory in Nottingham England

1792Eli Whitney invented cotton gin machine that automated separation of cottonseed from short-staple cotton fiber 1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard invented Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards*.

1813 William Horrocks invented variable speed batton (for an improved power loom). 1856 William Perkin invented first synthetic dye

Textile Industry
Machinery

Most controversial inventions have been connected with textile industry Led to riots or passage of laws prohibiting their introduction Need for clothing made spinning and
weaving staple industries

The loom is of ancient origin, but first modern invention to increase its efficiency was flying shuttle patented by John Kay in 1733 Device resulted in greater production from single loom, greater width, and reduced

need for people to tend the looms.

This was done by redesigning mechanism which feeds out weft, thread that crosses warp Kay's device became immediately unpopular with weavers for fear of becoming unemployed In 1755 he was attacked by mob destroyed one of looms. He died destitute 1764, although his flying shuttle
was used widely after death

The neo-cheaters realized use of Kay's invention would drastically change the world, make cloth less expensive and more readily available. Seeing these values, he was mistreated by the mystics.

Next major improvements in textile machinery were brought about by Richard Arkwright's (1732-1792) spinning machine and James Hargreaves' d. 1778 invention of jenny same year Kay died.

Arkwright's spinning frame required mechanical power and began move from spinning as a cottage industry to factory . It produced first satisfactory cotton warp, making possible manufacture of all-cotton goods Hargreaves' machine used patented roller and carriage system using finer
stronger yarn than before

Others, like Edmund Cartwright, became interested in applying mechanical power to hand looms, when in 1784 he had a chance encounter with some gentlemen from Manchester, who "observed that as soon as Arkwright's patent expired so many cotton mills would be formed and cotton spun that
hands could never be found to weave it."

This was in stark contrast to the English workmen led by Ned Lud (circa 1779) to break up stocking frames because they feared for jobs. Years later, during the second decade of l9th Century, when other textile workers rioted and broke up more labor-saving machinery, these disturbances were known as "Luddite riots" and men who took part as "Luddites."

These neo-cheating Luddites could not reconcile that labor-saving machinery itself had to be produced and would ultimately increase the demand for human labor, not lessen it.

As new machines radically improved output in one branch of the trade, a need was straightaway felt for fresh inventions to enable other branches to catch up with the

demand for their products."

By the time Cartwright was done perfecting his power loom, whole English cotton manufacturing industry was in need of increased supplies of raw cotton. Until the early 1790s the production of cotton in the South of the United States was languishing because one slave could only clean a pound
of cotton a day.

Eli Whitney (1765-1825), traveling to Georgia, perceived the need for an improved device to clean cotton. Winter 1792, he worked out details and soon after built a factory. Whitney's gin was so simple that imitations soon appeared. Competitors refused to pay royalties, and legal efforts to combat infringement on patent costed more than he gained. His invention had significant effect on course of history.

Probably no development increased demand for textile products more than invention of sewing machine mid-l9th Century. Sewing machine was also unique

as first major consumer appliance.

Elias Howe (1819-1867), Massachusetts mechanic, designed first machine 1843 based on lock stitch, limited sewing to straight seams. Isaac Singer (1811-1876) Boston invented really practical, domestic sewing machine 1851, straight needle, foot treadle, ability to sew curved seams. Although Howe won patent infringement suit against Singer, home demand for sewing machines was so great that it rendered the judgment harmless. Singer widely marketed his machines on installment basis.

Textile Industry
Textile and Apparel

The Textile and Apparel industry covers establishments that manufacture fiber and fiber products, fabrics, and finished fabric products such as clothing

Textile products include yarn, thread, twine, and woven and knit fabrics

The textile manufacturing sector also includes companies engaged in various treatments for fiber and textile products such as textile dying, coating, and waterproofing

Finished textile products include apparel, leather and fur products, curtains and draperies, canvas sheeting, and other fabric items

The industry covers both standard manufacturing operations and contract manufactures that make clothing and other products from materials owned by others

The US textile industry is facing competition from overseas production. In March 2005, a consortium of textile industry and labor groups, including the National Cotton Council, asked U.S. trade officials to invoke trade law provisions in response to a significant increase in Chinese apparel
imports.

National Cotton Council, also called for early monitoring of US trade data so that trends in imports can be responded to on a more timely basis.

On average, exports of apparel from China increased 546 percent from January 2004 to January 2005, the group claims. The increase comes after quotas on the import of Chinese textiles were lifted under negotiated free-trade agreements

The textile and apparel industry primarily generates consumer goods. Consumer spending has been impacted by a number of factors in recent years, including high fuel and energy prices and general economic

and political uncertainty.

Cautious consumers are most unlikely to spend on products they consider unnecessary or frivolous, which includes keeping up with the latest fashion trends in clothing and accessories

The holiday shopping season was not as strong for the apparel industry as it could have been. The industry was hit with a number of challenges, including high prices at the gas pump, unusually warm weather impacting the sales of cold-weather items, and an increase in popularity of consumer electronics as gift-giving items.

In order to remain competitive, many apparel manufacturers are seeking to expand their operations through acquisitions, not only in their own industry, but in related areas such as retail sales outlets and the rights to brand names for popular clothing lines

Recent acquisitions include Liz Claiborne buying premium fashion T-shirt vendor C&C California, Phillips-Van Heusen obtaining the Arrow brand, and Tommy Hilfiger acquiring the Lagerfeld trademarks

For the apparel segment of the industry, diversification by brand, channel, and product line is key to consistent earnings growth

The Textile industry also known in the UK and Australia as the Rag Trade is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles

Cottage Industry Prior to the manufacturing processes were mechanized, textiles were produced in the home, and excess sold for extra money. Most cloth was made from either wool, cotton, or flax, depending on the

era and location

For example, during the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of what it came from other than that it was a plant; noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by
plant-borne sheep

"There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the ends of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungry" John Mandeville 1350

This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool".

By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in
Asia and the Americas

In Roman times, wool, linen and leather clothed the European population: the cotton of India was a curiosity that only naturalists had heard of, and silk, imported along the Silk Route from China, was an extravagant

luxury

The use of flax fiber in the manufacturing of cloth in northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times

Cloth was produced in the home, and the excess woven cloth was sold to merchants called clothiers who visited the village with their trains of pack-horses. Some of the cloth was made into clothes for people living in the same area and a large amount of cloth was exported

The process of making cloth depends slightly on the fiber being used, but there are three main steps: preparation of fibers for spinning, spinning, and weaving or knitting

The preparation of the fibers differs the most depending on the fiber used. Flax requires retting and dressing, while wool requires carding and washing. The spinning and weaving processes are very similar between fibers though

Spinning evolved from twisting the fibers by hand, to use of a drop spindle, to a spinning wheel. Spindles or parts of them have been found in very, very old archaeological sites

They may represent one of the earliest pieces of technology available to humankind was invented in India between 500 and 1000 AD Reached Europe via the Middle East in the

European Middle Ages

Weaving, done on a loom has been around for as long as spinning. There are some indications that weaving was already known in the Palaeolithic

An indistinct textile impression has been found at Povlav, Moravia. Neolithic textiles are well known from finds in pile dwellings in Switzerland One extant fragment from the Neolithic was found in Fayum at a site which

dates to about 5000 BCE

There are many different types of looms, from a simple loom that dates back to the Vikings, to the standard floor loom

Industrial Revolution The key British industry at the beginning of the 18th century was the production of textiles made with wool from the large sheep-farming areas in the Midlands and across the country

Handlooms and spinning wheels were the tools of the trade of the weavers in their cottages, and this was a labor-intensive activity providing employment throughout Britain, with major centers being the West Country; Norwich and environs; and the West Riding of Yorkshire

The export trade in woolen goods accounted for more than a quarter of British exports during most of the 18th century, doubling between 1701 and 1770

Exports of the cotton industry centered in Lancashire had grown tenfold during this time, but still accounted for only a tenth of the value of the woolen trade.

The textile industry grew out of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century as mass production of clothing became a mainstream industry. Starting with the flying shuttle in 1733 inventions were made to speed up the

manufacturing process

In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt patented the Roller spinning machine and the flyer and bobbin system. Lewis Paul invented a carding machine in 1748, and by 1764 the spinning jenny had also been

invented

In 1771 Richard Arkwright used waterwheels to power looms for the production of cotton cloth, his invention becoming known as the water frame

In 1784 Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom With the spinning and weaving process now mechanized, cotton mills cropped up all over Great Britain.

Textile mills originally got their power from water wheels and thus had to be situated along a river. With the invention of the steam engine in the 1760s to 1800s mills no longer needed to be along rivers

Many of the cotton mills, like the one in Lowell MA, in the US originally started with the intention of hiring local farm girls for a few years The mill job was designed to give them a bit more money before they went

back to the farm life

With the inflow of cheap labor from Ireland during the potato famine, the setup changed, as the girls became easily replaceable. Cotton mills were full of the loud clanking of the looms, as well as lint

and cotton fiber

When the mills were first built a worker would work anywhere from one to four looms. As the design for the loom improved so that it stopped itself whenever a thread broke, and automatically refilled the shuttle, the number of machines a worker could work increased to up to 50

Originally, power looms were shuttleoperated but in the early part of the 20th century the faster and more efficient shuttle less loom came into use. Today, advances in technology have produced a variety of looms designed to maximize production for specific types of material

The most common of these are air-jet looms and water-jet looms. Industrial looms can weave at speeds of six rows per second and faster

By the later 20th century the industry in the developed world had developed a bad reputation, often involving immigrants in illegal sweat shops" full of people working on textile manufacturing and sewing machines being paid less than minimum wages

This trend has resulted due to attempts to protect existing industries which are being challenged by developing countries in South East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and more

recently, Central America

Whilst globalization has seen the manufacturing outsourced to overseas labor markets, there has been a trend for the areas historically associated with the trade to shift focus to the more white collar associated industries of fashion design, modeling and retail.

Areas historically involved heavily in the "rag trade" include London and Milan in Europe, SoHo district in New York City and the Flinders Lane and Richmond districts in Melbourne and Surry Hills in Sydney

Textile Industry
India

New innovations in clothing production, manufacture and design came during Industrial Revolution These new wheels, looms, and spinning processes changed clothing manufacture forever The rag trade, as it is referred to in UK Australia is manufacture, trade and distribution of textiles

Today, modern techniques, electronics and innovation have led to competitive, lowpriced textile industry offering cloth or design to ones desire. With low cost labor , China has come to dominate global textile industry

There were various stages from a historical perspective where the textile industry evolved

- domestic small-scale

industry, to the status of supremacy

Indian Textile Industry occupies a very important place in Indian economy through generation of employment, output and export earnings 2004 - 14% of total industrial output 4% of GDP, 16.63% of export earnings, Largest employment generator 35 million+ After agriculture, 18% of industrial employment, 20% of industrial production, 26% of manufacturing sector

Rigveda refers to weaving. The ancient Indian epics-Ramayana and Mahabharata also speak of variety of fabrics of those times Ramayana refers to rich styles worn by the aristocracy on one hand and the simple clothes worn by commoners and ascetics

Ample evidence on the ancient textiles of India can also be obtained from the various sculptures belonging to Mauryan and Gupta age as well as from ancient Buddhist scripts and murals Ajanta caves

When Amrapali, a courtesan from the kingdom of Vaishali met Gautam Buddha, she wore a richly woven semi transparent sari, speaks of technical achievement Indian weaver

India had numerous trade links and Indian Textiles were popular in the ancient world. Indian silk was popular in Rome in early centuries of the Christian era Hoards of fragments of cotton material- handloom found in Egyptian tombs at Fostat 5th century A.D Cotton textiles were exported to China

during heydays of silk route

Silk fabrics from south India were exported to Indonesia during 13th century. India exported printed cotton fabrics or chintz, to European countries and the Far East before

Europeans came to India


Chintz-cotton cloth, usually printed with flowery patterns, that has a slightly shiny appearance

The British East India Company traded in Indian cotton and silk fabrics, included famous Dacca muslins. Muslins from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were also popular abroad
Muslin-a very thin cotton material

The past traditions of the textile and handlooms can still be seen amongst the motifs, patterns, designs, and old techniques of weaving still employed by weavers