2.

1
Mobile Communications
Chapter 2: Wireless Transmission
Most of the slides are from Mobile Communications, Jochen Schiller, 2
nd
ed.

Presented by

Dr Ahmed Al-Dubai
School of Computing
Edinburgh Napier University
2.2
Overview
 Frequencies
 Signals
 Antenna
 Signal propagation
 Multiplexing
 Spread spectrum
 Modulation
 Cellular systems

2.3
Frequencies for communication
VLF = Very Low Frequency UHF = Ultra High Frequency
LF = Low Frequency SHF = Super High Frequency
MF = Medium Frequency EHF = Extra High Frequency
HF = High Frequency UV = Ultraviolet Light
VHF = Very High Frequency

Frequency and wave length:
ì = c/f
wave length ì, speed of light c ~ 3x10
8
m/s, frequency f
1 Mm
300 Hz
10 km
30 kHz
100 m
3 MHz
1 m
300 MHz
10 mm
30 GHz
100 µm
3 THz
1 µm
300 THz
visible light VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF infrared UV
optical transmission
coax cable twisted
pair
2.4
Frequencies for mobile communication
 VHF-/UHF-ranges for mobile radio
 simple, small antenna for cars
 deterministic propagation characteristics, reliable connections
 SHF and higher for directed radio links, satellite communication
 small antenna, focusing
 large bandwidth available
 Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF spectrum
 some systems planned up to EHF
 limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules
(resonance frequencies)
 weather dependent fading, signal loss caused by heavy rainfall etc.

2.5
Frequencies and regulations
ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages frequency bands
worldwide (WRC, World Radio Conferences)
Europe USA Japan
Cellular
Phones
GSM 450-457, 479-
486/460-467,489-
496, 890-915/935-
960,
1710-1785/1805-
1880
UMTS (FDD) 1920-
1980, 2110-2190
UMTS (TDD) 1900-
1920, 2020-2025
AMPS, TDMA, CDMA
824-849,
869-894
TDMA, CDMA, GSM
1850-1910,
1930-1990
PDC
810-826,
940-956,
1429-1465,
1477-1513

Cordless
Phones
CT1+ 885-887, 930-
932
CT2
864-868
DECT
1880-1900
PACS 1850-1910, 1930-
1990
PACS-UB 1910-1930
PHS
1895-1918
JCT
254-380
Wireless
LANs
IEEE 802.11
2400-2483
HIPERLAN 2
5150-5350, 5470-
5725
902-928
IEEE 802.11
2400-2483
5150-5350, 5725-5825
IEEE 802.11
2471-2497
5150-5250
Others RF-Control
27, 128, 418, 433,
868
RF-Control
315, 915
RF-Control
426, 868

2.6
Signals I
 physical representation of data
 layer 1 responsible for conversion of bits into signals & v.v.
 function of time and location
 periodic signals esp. sine waves as carriers
 signal parameters represent the data value
 amplitude
 frequency
 phase shift
 classification
 continuous time/discrete time
 continuous values/discrete values
 analog signal = continuous time and continuous values
 digital signal = discrete time and discrete values
2.7
Fourier representation of periodic signals
) 2 cos( ) 2 sin(
2
1
) (
1 1
nft b nft a c t g
n
n
n
n
t t
¿ ¿
·
=
·
=
+ + =
1
0
1
0
t t
ideal periodic signal
real composition
(based on harmonics)
2.8
 Different representations of signals
 amplitude (amplitude domain)
 frequency spectrum (frequency domain)
 phase state diagram (amplitude M and phase ¢ in polar coordinates)





 Composed signals transferred into frequency domain using Fourier
transformation
 Digital signals need
 infinite frequencies for perfect transmission
 modulation with a carrier frequency for transmission (analog signal!)
Signals II
f [Hz]
A [V]
¢
I= M cos ¢
Q = M sin ¢
¢
A [V]
t[s]
2.9
 Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves
 coupling of wires to space for radio transmission
 Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions (three
dimensional) - only a theoretical reference antenna
 Real antennas always have directive effects (vertically and/or
horizontally)
 not isotropic radiators
 Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around an antenna

Antennas: isotropic radiator
z y
x
z
y x
ideal
isotropic
radiator
2.10
Antennas: directed and sectorized
 Directional: preferential transmission & reception
 Sectorized:
 several directional antennas on single pole
 cell sectorized enabling frequency reuse
 Grouping of 2 or more antennas
 multi-element antenna arrays
 counter multi-path propagation effects
 Antenna diversity
 switched diversity, selection diversity
 receiver chooses antenna with largest output
 diversity combining
 combine output power to produce gain
 cophasing needed to avoid cancellation

2.11
Signal propagation ranges
distance
sender
transmission
detection
interference
Transmission range
 communication possible
 low error rate
Detection range
 detection of the signal
possible
 no communication
possible
Interference range
 signal may not be
detected
 signal adds to the
background noise

2.12
Signal propagation
Propagation in free space always like light (straight line)
Receiving power proportional to 1/d²
(d = distance between sender and receiver)
Receiving power additionally influenced by
 fading (frequency dependent)
 shadowing
 reflection at large obstacles
 refraction depending on the density of a medium
 scattering at small obstacles
 diffraction at edges
reflection scattering diffraction shadowing refraction
2.13
Signal can take many different paths between sender and receiver due to
reflection, scattering, diffraction






Time dispersion: signal is dispersed over time
 interference with “neighbor” symbols, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase shifted
 distorted signal depending on the phases of the different parts
Multipath propagation
signal at sender
signal at receiver
LOS pulses
multipath
pulses
2.14
Effects of mobility
Channel characteristics change over time and location
 signal paths change
 different delay variations of different signal parts
 different phases of signal parts
 quick changes in the power received (short term fading)

Additional changes in
 distance to sender
 obstacles further away
 slow changes in the average power
received (long term fading)
short term fading
long term
fading
t
power
2.15
Multiplexing in 4 dimensions
 space (s
i
)
 time (t)
 frequency (f)
 code (c)

Goal: multiple use
of a shared medium

Important: guard spaces needed!
s
2

s
3

s
1

Multiplexing
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
f
t
c
channels k
i

2.16
Frequency multiplex
Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands
A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time
Advantages:
 no dynamic coordination
necessary
 works also for analog signals

Disadvantages:
 waste of bandwidth
if the traffic is
distributed unevenly
 inflexible
 guard spaces

k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
2.17
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Time multiplex
A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time

Advantages:
 only one carrier in the
medium at any time
 throughput high even
for many users

Disadvantages:
 precise
synchronization
necessary
2.18
f
Time and frequency multiplex
Combination of both methods
A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time
Example: GSM
Advantages:
 better protection against
tapping
 protection against frequency
selective interference
 higher data rates compared to
code multiplex
but: precise coordination
required
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

2.19
Code multiplex
Each channel has a unique code

All channels use the same spectrum
at the same time
Advantages:
 bandwidth efficient
 no coordination and synchronization
necessary
 good protection against interference and
tapping
Disadvantages:
 lower user data rates
 more complex signal regeneration
Implemented using spread spectrum
technology
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
2.20
Modulation
Digital modulation
 digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)
 ASK, FSK, PSK - main focus in this chapter
 differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness
Analog modulation
 shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier
Motivation
 smaller antennas
 Frequency Division Multiplexing
 medium characteristics
Basic schemes
 Amplitude Modulation (AM)
 Frequency Modulation (FM)
 Phase Modulation (PM)
2.21
Modulation and demodulation
synchronization
decision
digital
data
analog
demodulation
radio
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
radio receiver
digital
modulation
digital
data
analog
modulation
radio
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
radio transmitter
2.22
Digital modulation
Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying
 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK):
 very simple
 low bandwidth requirements
 very susceptible to interference

 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):
 needs larger bandwidth


 Phase Shift Keying (PSK):
 more complex
 robust against interference
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
2.23
Advanced Frequency Shift Keying
 bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance between
the carrier frequencies
 special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts
 MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)
 bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit is
doubled
 depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower
frequency, original or inverted is chosen
 the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the other
 Equivalent to offset QPSK

 even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-pass
filter  GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM
2.24
Example of MSK
data
even bits
odd bits
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
t
low
frequency
high
frequency
MSK
signal
bit
even 0 1 0 1
odd 0 0 1 1
signal h n n h
value - - + +
h: high frequency
n: low frequency
+: original signal
-: inverted signal
No phase shifts!
2.25
Advanced Phase Shift Keying
BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):
 bit value 0: sine wave
 bit value 1: inverted sine wave
 very simple PSK
 low spectral efficiency
 robust, used e.g. in satellite systems
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying):
 2 bits coded as one symbol
 symbol determines shift of sine wave
 needs less bandwidth compared to
BPSK
 more complex
Often also transmission of relative, not
absolute phase shift: DQPSK -
Differential QPSK (IS-136, PHS)

11 10 00 01
Q
I
0 1
Q
I
11
01
10
00
A
t
2.26
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): combines amplitude and
phase modulation
 it is possible to code n bits using one symbol
 2
n
discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK
 bit error rate increases with n, but less errors compared to
comparable PSK schemes


Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol)
Symbols 0011 and 0001 have the same phase φ,
but different amplitude a. 0000 and 1000 have
different phase, but same amplitude.
 used in standard 9600 bit/s modems
0000
0001
0011
1000
Q
I
0010
φ
a
2.27
Spread spectrum technology
Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can wipe out
narrow band signals for duration of the interference
Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal using a
special code
protection against narrow band interference




protection against narrowband interference
Side effects:
 coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination
 tap-proof
Alternatives: Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping

detection at
receiver
interference spread
signal
signal
spread
interference
f f
power power
2.28
Effects of spreading and interference
dP/df
f
i)
dP/df
f
ii)
sender
dP/df
f
iii)
dP/df
f
iv)
receiver
f
v)
user signal
broadband interference
narrowband interference
dP/df
2.29
Spreading and frequency selective fading
frequency
channel
quality
1
2
3
4
5 6
narrow band
signal
guard space
2
2
2
2
2

frequency
channel
quality
1
spread
spectrum
narrowband channels
spread spectrum channels
2.30
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) I
XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence)
 many chips per bit (e.g., 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal
Advantages
 reduces frequency selective
fading
 in cellular networks
 base stations can use the
same frequency range
 several base stations can
detect and recover the signal
 soft handover
Disadvantages
 precise power control necessary
user data
chipping
sequence
resulting
signal
0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
XOR
0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
=
t
b

t
c

t
b
: bit period
t
c
: chip period
2.31
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) II
X
user data
chipping
sequence
modulator
radio
carrier
spread
spectrum
signal
transmit
signal
transmitter
demodulator
received
signal
radio
carrier
X
chipping
sequence
lowpass
filtered
signal
receiver
integrator
products
decision
data
sampled
sums
correlator
2.32
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) I
Discrete changes of carrier frequency
 sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number
sequence
Two versions
 Fast Hopping:
several frequencies per user bit
 Slow Hopping:
several user bits per frequency
Advantages
 frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period
 simple implementation
 uses only small portion of spectrum at any time
Disadvantages
 not as robust as DSSS
 simpler to detect

2.33
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) II
user data
slow
hopping
(3 bits/hop)
fast
hopping
(3 hops/bit)
0 1
t
b

0 1 1 t
f
f
1

f
2

f
3

t
t
d

f
f
1

f
2

f
3

t
t
d

t
b
: bit period t
d
: dwell time
2.34
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) III
modulator
user data
hopping
sequence
modulator
narrowband
signal
spread
transmit
signal
transmitter
received
signal
receiver
demodulator
data
frequency
synthesizer
hopping
sequence
demodulator
frequency
synthesizer
narrowband
signal
2.35
Cell structure
Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain
transmission area (cell)
Mobile stations communicate only via the base station

Advantages of cell structures:
 higher capacity, higher number of users
 less transmission power needed
 more robust, decentralized
 base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally
Problems:
 fixed network needed for the base stations
 handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary
 interference with other cells
Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side
(GSM) - even less for higher frequencies
2.36
Frequency planning I
Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base
stations
Standard model using 7 frequencies:




Fixed frequency assignment:
 certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell
 problem: different traffic load in different cells
Dynamic frequency assignment:
 base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies
already used in neighbor cells
 more capacity in cells with more traffic
 assignment can also be based on interference measurements
f
4

f
5

f
1

f
3

f
2

f
6

f
7

f
3

f
2

f
4

f
5

f
1

2.37
Frequency planning II
f
1

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
1

f
1

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
3

f
1

f
2

f
1

f
3
f
3

f
3
f
3

f
3

f
4

f
5

f
1

f
3

f
2

f
6

f
7

f
3

f
2

f
4

f
5

f
1

f
3

f
5
f
6

f
7
f
2

f
2

f
1
f
1
f
1

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
3

h
1

h
2

h
3

g
1

g
2

g
3

h
1

h
2

h
3

g
1

g
2

g
3

g
1

g
2

g
3

3 cell cluster
7 cell cluster
3 cell cluster
with 3 sector antennas
2.38
Cell breathing
CDM systems: cell size depends on current load
Additional traffic appears as noise to other users
If the noise level is too high users drop out of cells

Overview
       

Frequencies Signals Antenna Signal propagation Multiplexing Spread spectrum Modulation Cellular systems

2.2

Frequencies for communication
twisted pair coax cable optical transmission

1 Mm 300 Hz

10 km 30 kHz

100 m 3 MHz

1m 300 MHz

10 mm 30 GHz

100 m 3 THz

1 m 300 THz

VLF

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

infrared

visible light UV

VLF = Very Low Frequency LF = Low Frequency MF = Medium Frequency HF = High Frequency VHF = Very High Frequency

UHF = Ultra High Frequency SHF = Super High Frequency EHF = Extra High Frequency UV = Ultraviolet Light

Frequency and wave length:

 = c/f
wave length , speed of light c  3x108m/s, frequency f
2.3

small antenna for cars  deterministic propagation characteristics.Frequencies for mobile communication  VHF-/UHF-ranges for mobile radio  simple. reliable connections  SHF and higher for directed radio links. satellite communication  small antenna. focusing  large bandwidth available  Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF spectrum  some systems planned up to EHF  limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules (resonance frequencies)  weather dependent fading. 2. signal loss caused by heavy rainfall etc.4 .

433. 915 IEEE 802.5 . 418.Frequencies and regulations ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies. 54705725 RF-Control 27.11 2400-2483 HIPERLAN 2 5150-5350. TDMA. 2110-2190 UMTS (TDD) 19001920. 2020-2025 CT1+ 885-887. 1429-1465.11 2471-2497 5150-5250 Others RF-Control 426. 930932 CT2 864-868 DECT 1880-1900 IEEE 802. GSM 1850-1910. manages frequency bands worldwide (WRC. 869-894 TDMA.11 2400-2483 5150-5350. 868 USA AMPS. 128. CDMA. 19301990 PACS-UB 1910-1930 PHS 1895-1918 JCT 254-380 Wireless LANs 902-928 IEEE 802. 940-956.489496. World Radio Conferences) Europe Cellular Phones GSM 450-457. 1477-1513 Cordless Phones PACS 1850-1910. 479486/460-467. 868 2. 5725-5825 RF-Control 315. 1710-1785/18051880 UMTS (FDD) 19201980. 890-915/935960. 1930-1990 Japan PDC 810-826. CDMA 824-849.

6 .Signals I      physical representation of data layer 1 responsible for conversion of bits into signals & v.v. sine waves as carriers signal parameters represent the data value  amplitude  frequency  phase shift  classification  continuous time/discrete time  continuous values/discrete values  analog signal = continuous time and continuous values  digital signal = discrete time and discrete values 2. function of time and location periodic signals esp.

Fourier representation of periodic signals   1 g (t )  c   an sin(2nft )   bn cos(2nft ) 2 n 1 n 1 1 1 0 t 0 t ideal periodic signal real composition (based on harmonics) 2.7 .

8 .Signals II  Different representations of signals  amplitude (amplitude domain)  frequency spectrum (frequency domain)  A [V] t[s] phase state diagram (amplitude M and phase  in polar coordinates) A [V] Q = M sin   I= M cos   f [Hz]   Composed signals transferred into frequency domain using Fourier transformation Digital signals need  infinite frequencies for perfect transmission  modulation with a carrier frequency for transmission (analog signal!) 2.

only a theoretical reference antenna Real antennas always have directive effects (vertically and/or horizontally)  not isotropic radiators  Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around an antenna y z y x z x ideal isotropic radiator 2.Antennas: isotropic radiator   Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves  coupling of wires to space for radio transmission  Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions (three dimensional) .9 .

Antennas: directed and sectorized   Directional: preferential transmission & reception Sectorized:  several directional antennas on single pole  cell sectorized enabling frequency reuse  Grouping of 2 or more antennas  multi-element antenna arrays  counter multi-path propagation effects  Antenna diversity   switched diversity.10 . selection diversity  receiver chooses antenna with largest output diversity combining  combine output power to produce gain  cophasing needed to avoid cancellation 2.

11 .Signal propagation ranges Transmission range  communication possible  low error rate Detection range  detection of the signal possible  no communication possible sender Interference range  transmission distance detection interference signal may not be detected  signal adds to the background noise 2.

12 .Signal propagation Propagation in free space always like light (straight line) Receiving power proportional to 1/d² (d = distance between sender and receiver) Receiving power additionally influenced by  fading (frequency dependent)  shadowing  reflection at large obstacles  refraction depending on the density of a medium  scattering at small obstacles  diffraction at edges shadowing reflection refraction scattering diffraction 2.

13 .Multipath propagation Signal can take many different paths between sender and receiver due to reflection. scattering. diffraction multipath LOS pulses pulses signal at sender Time dispersion: signal is dispersed over time  interference with “neighbor” symbols. Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase shifted  distorted signal depending on the phases of the different parts signal at receiver 2.

14 .Effects of mobility Channel characteristics change over time and location  signal paths change  different delay variations of different signal parts  different phases of signal parts  quick changes in the power received (short term fading) Additional changes in  distance to sender  obstacles further away  slow changes in the average power power long term fading received (long term fading) short term fading t 2.

15 .Multiplexing Multiplexing in 4 dimensions  channels ki k1 c t c t k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 space (si)  time (t)  frequency (f)  code (c) Goal: multiple use of a shared medium Important: guard spaces needed! s1 f s2 c t f s3 f 2.

16 .Frequency multiplex Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time Advantages:  no dynamic coordination necessary k1 k2 k3 k4 k5  works also for analog signals c k6 Disadvantages:  waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly  inflexible  guard spaces t f 2.

Time multiplex A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time Advantages:  only one carrier in the medium at any time  throughput high even for many users c k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 Disadvantages:  precise synchronization necessary t f 2.17 .

Time and frequency multiplex Combination of both methods A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time Example: GSM Advantages:  better protection against tapping  protection against frequency selective interference  higher data rates compared to code multiplex k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 but: precise coordination required f t 2.18 .

Code multiplex Each channel has a unique code k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 All channels use the same spectrum at the same time Advantages:  c bandwidth efficient  no coordination and synchronization necessary  good protection against interference and tapping f Disadvantages:  lower user data rates  more complex signal regeneration Implemented using spread spectrum technology 2.19 t .

FSK.main focus in this chapter  differences in spectral efficiency.Modulation Digital modulation  digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)  ASK. PSK . robustness Analog modulation  shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier Motivation  smaller antennas  Frequency Division Multiplexing  medium characteristics Basic schemes  Amplitude Modulation (AM)  Frequency Modulation (FM)  Phase Modulation (PM) 2. power efficiency.20 .

Modulation and demodulation digital data 101101001 digital modulation analog baseband signal analog modulation radio transmitter radio carrier analog demodulation analog baseband signal synchronization decision digital data 101101001 radio receiver radio carrier 2.21 .

22 .Digital modulation Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying 1  Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK):  0 1 very simple  low bandwidth requirements  very susceptible to interference  t Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):  1 0 1 needs larger bandwidth t  Phase Shift Keying (PSK):  1 0 1 more complex  robust against interference t 2.

the duration of each bit is doubled depending on the bit values (even. original or inverted is chosen the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the other Equivalent to offset QPSK even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-pass filter  GMSK (Gaussian MSK). odd) the higher or lower frequency. used in GSM  2.Advanced Frequency Shift Keying       bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance between the carrier frequencies special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts  MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) bit separated into even and odd bits.23 .

Example of MSK 1 data even bits odd bits 0 1 1 0 1 0 bit even odd signal value 0101 0011 hnnh ..24 .++ low frequency h: high frequency n: low frequency +: original signal -: inverted signal high frequency MSK signal t No phase shifts! 2.

PHS) t 11 2.g. not absolute phase shift: DQPSK Differential QPSK (IS-136. used e.25 10 00 01 . in satellite systems 1 0 I 10 Q 11 QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying):  2 bits coded as one symbol  symbol determines shift of sine wave  needs less bandwidth compared to BPSK  more complex I 00 A 01 Often also transmission of relative.Advanced Phase Shift Keying BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):      Q bit value 0: sine wave bit value 1: inverted sine wave very simple PSK low spectral efficiency robust.

but same amplitude.26 . but less errors compared to comparable PSK schemes Q 0010 0011 φ a 0001 0000 I 1000 Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol) Symbols 0011 and 0001 have the same phase φ. n=2 identical to QPSK  bit error rate increases with n.Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): combines amplitude and phase modulation  it is possible to code n bits using one symbol  2n discrete levels. but different amplitude a. 0000 and 1000 have different phase.  used in standard 9600 bit/s modems 2.

Spread spectrum technology Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can wipe out narrow band signals for duration of the interference Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal using a special code protection against narrow band interference power interference spread signal power detection at receiver f protection against narrowband interference signal spread interference f Side effects:  coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination  tap-proof Alternatives: Direct Sequence. Frequency Hopping 2.27 .

28 .Effects of spreading and interference dP/df dP/df user signal broadband interference narrowband interference i) ii) f sender dP/df dP/df f dP/df iii) f iv) receiver f v) f 2.

Spreading and frequency selective fading channel quality 1 2 3 4 5 6 narrowband channels frequency narrow band signal channel quality 2 guard space 2 2 spread spectrum channels 1 2 2 spread spectrum frequency 2.29 .

.g. 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal Advantages   reduces frequency selective fading in cellular networks  tb user data 0 tc 1 XOR base stations can use the same frequency range  several base stations can detect and recover the signal  soft handover chipping sequence 01101010110101 = resulting signal Disadvantages  precise power control necessary 01101011001010 tb: bit period tc: chip period 2.DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) I XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence)  many chips per bit (e.30 .

31 .DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) II user data X chipping sequence spread spectrum signal modulator radio carrier transmitter transmit signal correlator received signal demodulator radio carrier chipping sequence receiver lowpass filtered signal X products integrator sampled sums data decision 2.

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) I Discrete changes of carrier frequency  sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number sequence Two versions  Fast Hopping: several frequencies per user bit  Slow Hopping: several user bits per frequency Advantages  frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period  simple implementation  uses only small portion of spectrum at any time Disadvantages  not as robust as DSSS  simpler to detect 2.32 .

33 .FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) II tb user data 0 f f3 f2 f1 f f3 f2 f1 t td t fast hopping (3 hops/bit) 1 td slow hopping (3 bits/hop) 0 1 1 t tb: bit period td: dwell time 2.

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) III narrowband signal modulator modulator spread transmit signal user data transmitter frequency synthesizer hopping sequence received signal narrowband signal data demodulator demodulator hopping sequence frequency synthesizer receiver 2.34 .

Cell structure Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain transmission area (cell) Mobile stations communicate only via the base station Advantages of cell structures:  higher capacity. decentralized  base station deals with interference. 35 km on the country side (GSM) .even less for higher frequencies 2. locally Problems:  fixed network needed for the base stations  handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary  interference with other cells Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to. e. higher number of users  less transmission power needed  more robust.g.35 .. transmission area etc.

36 .Frequency planning I Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base stations Standard model using 7 frequencies: f3 f5 f4 f1 f3 f7 f6 f4 f1 f2 f5 f2 Fixed frequency assignment:    certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell problem: different traffic load in different cells Dynamic frequency assignment: base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies already used in neighbor cells  more capacity in cells with more traffic  assignment can also be based on interference measurements 2.

37 .Frequency planning II f3 f2 f1 f3 f2 f1 f3 f3 f2 f1 f3 f2 f1 f3 f3 f1 f2 f3 f2 f5 f4 f1 f3 f2 f6 f5 f7 f6 f4 f1 f3 f2 f5 f7 3 cell cluster f3 f2 7 cell cluster f2 f2 f2 f1 f f1 f f1 f h h 3 3 3 h 2 h 2 g2 1 h3 g2 1 h3 g2 g1 g1 g1 g3 g3 g3 3 cell cluster with 3 sector antennas 2.

Cell breathing CDM systems: cell size depends on current load Additional traffic appears as noise to other users If the noise level is too high users drop out of cells 2.38 .

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