Example of conservative esthetic procedures.

Shape or Form  Symmetry and Proportionality  Position and alignment  Surface texture  Color  Translucency

Masculine smileCharacteristic of an older individual having experienced attrition secondary to aging. Feminine smile. open incisal and facial embrasures. .Rounded incisal angles. and softened facial line angles typically characterize a youthful. typically exhibits incisal embrasures with more closed and prominent incisal angles.• • • The shape of the teeth largely determines their esthetic appearance.

making them more noticeable. whereas areas of depression or diminishing contour are shadowed and less conspicuous. .• Illusions of shape -Prominent areas of contour on a tooth typically are highlighted with direct illumination. • Apparent size of tooth -can be changed by altering the position of facial prominences or heights of contour without changing the actual dimension of the tooth.

. Asymmetric teeth or teeth that are out of proportion to the surrounding teeth disrupt sense of balance and harmony essential for optimal esthetics.• • The overall esthetics appearance of a human smile is governed by largely by the symmetry and proportionality of the teeth that constitute the smile.

.• The overall harmony and balance of a smile depend largely on proper position of teeth and their alignment in the arch.

.• Minor positional defects -often can be treated with composite augmentation of full facial veneers indirectly made from composite or porcelain. • Minor rotation -can be corrected by reducing the enamel in the area of prominence and augmenting the deficient area with composite material.

are treated in a similar manner. Teeth in mild linguoversion can be treated by augmentation with full facial veneers placed directly with composite or made indirectly from processed composite or pocelain. .• Malposed teeth .

The surfaces of natural teeth typically break up light and reflect it in many directions. • .• The character and individuality of teeth are determined largely by the surface texture and characteristics that exist.

with the gingival region being typically darker because of thinner enamel. . The gradation of color usually occurs from gingival to incisal.• • • Color is the most complex and least understood artistic element. Exposed root surface are particularly darker because of the absence of overlying enamel.

• • • Translucency also affect the esthetic quality of the restoration. Illusions of translucency also can be created to enhance realism of a restoration. . The degree of translucency is related to how deeply light penetrates into the tooth or restoration before it is reflected outward.

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.• Reshaping and polishing the natural teeth to improve their appearance and function. Etiology: attrition of the incisal edges often result in closed incisal embrasures and angular incisal edges.

.Etiology: anterior teeth can have embrasures that are too open as a result of the shape or position of the teeth in the arch .

Etiology: diastemas should not be closed without first recognizing and treating the underlying cause .

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• Stains on the external surfaces of the teeth are common and may be the result of numerous .

• • Are caused by deeper internal stains or enamel defects These stains are more complicated to treat than external types .

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.• • The primary indication for nonvital bleaching is to lighten teeth that have undergone root canal therapy. A paste of calcium hydroxide powder and sterile water is placed in the pulp chamber.

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.• Themocatalytic technique consisting of the placement of 35% hydrogen peroxide liquid into the debrided pulp chamber and acceleration of the oxidation process by placement of heating instrument into the pulp chamber.

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• • Sodium perborate is used with this technique. sealed with a composite restoration will subsequently discolor .

compliance. or drug ingestion. the soft tissue is generally protected from the process. and it has the potential for bleaching teeth more rapidly .• • • The indications for the different vital bleaching technique are similar. advantages of the in-office vital bleaching technique are that (although it uses very caustic chemicals) it is totally under the dentist's control. and difficulty in removing certain discolorations dictating the choice of treatment or combination of treatments Indications for vital bleaching include intrinsically discolored teeth from aging. trauma. cost. with patient preference.

the soft tissue is generally protected from the process. and the unknown duration of the treatment.• advantages of the in-office vital bleaching technique are that (although it uses very caustic chemicals) it is totally under the dentist's control. • . the unpredictable outcome. Disadvantages primarily relate to the cost. and it has the potential for bleaching teeth more rapidly.

Example: nightguard vital bleaching .• • Is much less labor intensive and requires substantially less inoffice time.

 . and  the (unknown) potential for soft-tissue changes with excessively extended use. minimal side effects. The disadvantages are the reliance on patient compliance.  the ease of application. and  lower cost because of the reduced chair time required for treatment.The advantages of the dentist prescribedhome applied technique  are the use of a lower concentration of peroxide (generally 10% to 15% carbamide peroxide).  the longer treatment time.

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. Therefore teeth stained with tetracycline require prolonged treatment times up to several months before any results are observed.Tetracycline-stained teeth typically are much more resistant to bleaching.

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• The pumice-acid slurry is then applied to the tooth or teeth and rubbed either manually or with a very slow speed rubber cup. .

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Macro abrasion process has a better control on the removal of tooth structure. Macro abrasion is a faster and easier procedure and no special instrumentation is required.• • involves using of dental drill and finishing bur to remove the strains. . It is very important to do the procedure very cautiously as errors can lead to irreversible catastrophic results.

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• localized defects or areas of intrinsic discoloration. Partial veneers -are indicated for the restoration of Full veneers -are indicated for the restoration of • generalized defects or areas of intrinsic staining involving most of the facial surface of the tooth. .

Indirect veneers are made by laboratory technicians and are typically more esthetic. indirect veneers usually can be placed much more expeditiously. especially if they are made of porcelain or pressed ceramic. . Indirect veneers typically last much longer than direct veneers. Considerable artistic expertise and attention to detail are required to achieve esthetic and physiologically sound direct veneers consistently.   Indirectly fabricated veneers are much less sensitive to operator technique. If multiple teeth are to be veneered.

 . bonding. fluoride-rich layer of enamel that may be more resistant to acid etching  To create a rough surface to improved bonding  To establish a definite finish line.  To remove the outer. or veneering materials for maximal esthetics without overcontouring.To provide space for opaque.

A. Facial view of partial veneer that does not extend subgingivally or involve incisal angle.Three types of veneers. (Note that subgingival extension is only indicated for preparation of darkly stained teeth and is not considered routine. B. . Full veneer with window preparation design that extends to gingival crest and terminates at the facioincisal angle. Full veneer with i ncisal-lapping preparation design extending subgingivally that includes all of incisal surface. Cross-sections of the three types of veneers in A through C. C.) D to F.

 . Window preparation -A window preparation is recommended for most direct and indirect composite veneers Incisal. lapping preparation -indicated when the tooth being veneered needs lengthening or when an incisal defect warrants restoration.

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Extensive enamel hypoplasia involving all of the maxillary anterior teeth was treated by direct full veneers .

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Processed composite  Feldspathic porcelain  Cast or pressed ceramic  .

veneers are easily placed, • finished, and • polished. • They also can be replaced or repaired easily with chairside composite

The most frequently used indirect veneer type is the etched porcelain (i.e.,feldspathic) veneer.  Porcelain veneers etched with hydrofluoric acid are capable of achieving high-bond strengths to the etched enamel via a resin-bonding mediums.

Unlike etched porcelain veneers that are fabricated by stacking and firing feldspathic porcelain. such as IPS Empress. pressed ceramic veneers are literally cast using a lost wax technique. . Excellent esthetics are possible using pressed ceramic materials for most cases involving mild-to-moderate discoloration.• • • Another esthetic alternative for veneering teeth is the use of pressed ceramics.

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Natural tooth pontic  Denture tooth pontic  Porcelain-fused-to-metal pontic or allmetal pontic with metal retainers  All-porcelain pontic  .

.• Using the natural tooth as a pontic offers the benefits of being the right size. the positive psychological value to the patient in using his or her natural tooth is an added benefit. shape and color. Moreover.

and  Root canal treatment has been unsuccessful  .Periodontally involved teeth warrant extraction  Teeth have fractured tooth  Teeth are unsuccessfully reimplanted after avulsion.

especially the pontic. because it may brittle and more susceptible to fracture  The abutment teeth should be fairly stable  The tooth to be replaced because a pontic must not participate in heavy centric or functional occlusion.  .The extracted tooth and abutments must be in reasonably good condition.

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and laboratory fees are lower.     Anesthesia is usually not required Tooth structure is conserved Gingival tissues are not irritated because margins usually are not placed subgingivally An esthetic result can be obtained more easily The cost is less because not as much chair time is required. .

Rochette  Maryalnd  .

Rochette Maryland .

It is easy to see retentive perforations in the metal  If the bridge must be removed or replaced. the bonding medium can be cut away in the perforations to facilitate easy removal  No metal etching is required  .

The perforations could weaken the retainers if improperly sized or spaced  The exposed resin cement is subject to wear  It is not possible to place perforations in proximal or rest areas  .