By : Alok Pareek, Satish Solanki & Harsh Vardhan Sikhwal

while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of that path. An instance of a layer provides services to its upper layer instances while receiving services from the layer below. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. . Two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal connection on that layer. For example. a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it.WHAT IS OSI?   The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers.

Honeywell Information Services. In this model.HISTORY   Work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. one or more entities implement its functionality. Each entity interacted directly only with the layer immediately beneath it. a networking system was divided into layers.1. The concept of a seven-layer model was provided by the work of Charles Bachman. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. and a set of specific protocols. EIN. the fledgling Internet. called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model. Various aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the ARPANET. Within each layer. NPLNET. and provided facilities for use by the layer above it . OSI had two major components: an abstract model of networking. CYCLADES network and the work in IFIP WG6.

OSI Model with Diagram .

repeaters. hubs. there are seven layers. In particular. . network adapters. cable specifications.200. This includes the layout of pins. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are: Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. host bus adapters(HBA used in storage area networks) and more.DESCRIPTION OF OSI LAYERS According to recommendation X. it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium. voltages. such as a copper or optical cable. These Seven layers are  Layer 1: Physical layer The physical layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices.

or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. ITU. although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a transport layer protocol that runs over this bus.hn and IEEE 802. Modulation. The same applies to other local-area networks. FDDI. as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802. such as token ring. Various physicallayer Ethernet standards are also in this layer. .Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link.15.TG.4. Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the data link layer.11. contention resolution and flow control. Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer. For example.

the acknowledgment frames compete for the use of the line with data frames. the sender breaks the input data into data frames (typically a few hundred or a few thousand bytes).typically by attaching special bit patterns to the beginning and end of the frame. transmits the frames sequentially. each with different quality and price). and processes the acknowledgment frames sent back by the receiver. lost or duplicate frames (the data link layer may offer several different service classes to the network layer. The issues that the layer has to solve: to create and to recognize frame boundaries . to solve the problem caused by damaged.to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. if the line is bi-directional. To accomplish this. .2) The Data Link Layer: The main task of the data link layer is to take a raw transmission facility and transform it into a line that appears free of undetected transmission errors to the network layer.

The issues that the layer has to solve: To implement the routing mechanism. . That is. the network layer is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet. To do accounting.3) The Network Layer: The main task of the network layer is to determine how data can be delivered from source to destination. To control congestions. To allow interconnection of heterogeneous networks.

 To provide different type of services for the session layer. pass them to the network layer. All this must be done in a way that isolates the upper layers from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology. The issues that the transport layer has to solve:  To realize a transport connection by several network connections if the session layer requires a high throughput or multiplex several transport connections onto the same network connection if network connections are expensive. split it up into smaller units if need be.  To implement a kind of flow control .4) The Transport Layer: The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from the session layer. and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end.

the session layer can help to keep track of whose turn it is. Only the side holding the token may perform the critical action. After a crash. The session layer provides tokens that can be exchanged.by inserting checkpoints into the data stream the layer eliminates problems with potential crashes at long operations. A session allows ordinary data transport. Token management . but it also provides enhanced services useful in some applications. Some of these services are:  Dialog control . as does the transport layer. or in only one direction at a time.  Synchronization . If traffic can go only in one way at a time.5) The Session Layer: The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. only the data transferred after the last checkpoint have to be repeated .session can allow traffic to go in both directions at the same time.for some protocols it is essential that both sides do not attempt the same operation at the same time.

concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. rather than letting each user solve the problem.6) The Presentation Layer: The presentation layer performs certain functions that are requested sufficiently often to warrant finding a general solution for them. The presentation layer manages these abstract data structures and converts from the representation used inside the computer to the network standard representation and back . In order to make it possible for computers with different representations to communicate. This layer is. along with a standard encoding to be used "on the wire". A typical example of a presentation service is encoding data in a standard agreed upon way. Different computers may use different ways of internal coding of characters or numbers. unlike all the lower layers. the data structures to be exchanged can be defined in an abstract way.

remote job entry. Further facilities of the application layer are electronic mail. Another application layer function is file transfer. All the virtual terminal software is in the application layer. directory lookup ant others . It must handle different incompatibilities between file systems on different computers. For example. there are hundreds of incompatible terminal types in the world. One way to solve this problem is to define network virtual terminal and write editor for this terminal.7) The Application Layer: The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed. many problems arise from their incompatibility. To handle each terminal type. If they have to be used for a work with a full screen editor. a piece of software must be written to map the functions of the network virtual terminal onto the real terminal.

Problem’s in OSI Model Seven layers not widely accepted  Standardized before implemented  Top three layers fuzzy  Internet or TCP/IP layering widespread  .

073/08570.!./ O .