3-1

Objectives
Discuss the role of organization analysis, person analysis, and task analysis in needs assessment. Identify different methods used in needs assessment and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each. Discuss the concerns of upper-level and mid-level managers and trainers in needs assessment. Explain how person characteristics, input, output, consequences, and feedback influence performance and learning.

3-2

Objectives (continued)
Create conditions to ensure that employees are receptive to training. Discuss the steps involved in conducting a task analysis. Analyze the task analysis data to determine the tasks in which people need to be trained. Explain competency models and the process used to develop them.

 The example of Texas Instruments shows. before you choose a training methods.  The instructional systems design process begins by conducting a needs assessment.3-3 Introduction  Effective training practices involve the use of an instructional systems design process. it is important to determine whether training is necessary. .

 Because needs assessment is the first step in the instructional design process: If it is poorly conducted. training will not achieve the outcomes or financial benefits the company expects. .3-4 Needs Assessment  Refers to the process used to determine if training is necessary.

3-5 The Needs Assessment Process Reasons or “Pressure Points •Legislation Outcomes What is the Context? Organizatio n Analysis Task Analysis Person Analysis •Lack of Basic Skills •Poor Performance •New Technology •Customer Requests •What Trainees Need to Learn •Who Receives Training In What Do They Need Training? •Type of Training •Frequency of Training •Buy Versus Build Training Decision •New Products •Higher Performance Standards •New Jobs Who Needs the Training? •Training Versus Other HR Options Such as Selection or Job Redesign .

skill. given the business strategy  resources available for training  support by managers and peers for training Task Analysis – involves:  identifying the important tasks and knowledge.3-6 Needs assessment involves:   Organizational Analysis – involves determining:  the appropriateness of training. and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks .

3-7 Needs assessment involves: (continued)  Person Analysis – involves:  determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge. skill. or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem  identifying who needs training  determining employees’ readiness for training .

and ability needed to compete in the marketplace? What tasks should be trained? What knowledge. or other characteristics are necessary? . skills.and Midlevel Managers and Trainers in Needs Assessment Upper-Level Managers Organizational analysis Is training important to achieve our business objectives? How does training support our business strategy? What functions or business units need training? Midlevel Managers Do I want to spend money on training? How much? Trainers Do I have the budget to buy training services? Will managers support training? Person analysis Who should be trained? Managers? Professionals? Core employees? For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service? How will I identify which employees need training? Task analysis Does the company have the people with the knowledge.3-8 Key Concerns of Upper. ability. skills.

Lacks detail. Inexpensive Can collect data from a large number of persons. Disadvantages Needs skilled observer. Employees’ behavior may be affected by being observed. Data easily summarized. Questionnaires Requires time. Minimizes interruption of work. Possible low return rates. inappropriate responses. .3-9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques Technique Observation Advantages Generates data relevant to work environment.

10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (continued) Technique Read technical manuals and records Advantages Good source of information on procedure. Materials may be obsolete. Interview subject matter experts Good at uncovering details Time consuming. Good at uncovering Needs skilled interviewer. Disadvantages You may not be able to understand technical language.3 . causes and solutions of problems. Good source of task information for new jobs and jobs in the process of being created. Difficult to analyze. of training needs. Objective. .

3 .11 The Needs Analysis Process Person Analysis Person Characteristics • Input • Output • Consequences • Feedback Organizational Analysis • Strategic Direction • Support of Managers & Peers for Training • Training Resources Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model • Work Activity (Task) Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training? • KSAs • Working Conditions .

12 Readiness for training refers to whether:  Employees have the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job.  The . work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance.3 .

13 Factors that influence employee performance and learning:  Personal Ability Characteristics and skill Attitudes and motivation  Input Understand need to perform Necessary resources (equipment.3 . etc.) Interference from other job demands Opportunity to perform .

14 Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (continued)  Output Standard to judge successful performers  Consequences Positive consequences/incentives to perform Few negative consequences to perform  Feedback Frequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed .3 .

15 Self-Efficacy  Self-efficacy is the employee’s belief that she can successfully perform her job or learn the content of the training program. .3 . The job environment can be threatening to many employees who may not have been successful in the past. The training environment can also be threatening to people.

Employees’ self-efficacy level can be increased by:  Letting 3 .  Providing . as much information as possible about the training program and purpose of training prior to the actual training.16 employees know that the purpose of the training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify areas in which employees are incompetent.

 Providing employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program. .Employees’ self-efficacy level can be increased by: (continued)  Showing 3 .17 employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs.

18 To ensure that the work environment enhances trainees’ motivation to learn:  Provide materials. and other work aids necessary for employees to use new skills or behavior before participating in training programs.3 . . job-related information.  Speak positively about the company’s training programs to employees. time.  Let employees know they are doing a good job when they are using training content in their work.

 Provide employees with time and opportunities to practice and apply new skills or behaviors to their work. .To ensure that the work environment enhances trainees’ motivation to learn: (con’td)  Encourage 3 .19 work-group members to involve each other in trying to use new skills on the job by soliciting feedback and sharing training experiences and situations in which training content was helpful.

do not know how to perform  Employees effectively. assess whether:  The performance problem is important and has the potential to cost the company a significant amount of money from lost productivity or customers.  Perhaps they received little or no previous training or the training was ineffective.20 To determine if training is the best solution.3 .  (This problem is a characteristic of the person) .

3 .21 To determine if training is the best solution. (This is an input problem. assess whether: (continued)  Employees cannot demonstrate the correct knowledge or behavior.)  Performance expectations are clear (input) and there are no obstacles to performance such as faulty tools or equipment.  Employees were trained but they infrequently or never used the training content on the job. .

. while poor performance is not rewarded. accurate.  Employees receive timely.22 To determine if training is the best solution. relevant. and specific feedback about their performance (a feedback issue).  Other solutions such as job redesign or transferring employees to other jobs are too expensive or unrealistic. constructive. assess whether: (continued)  There are positive consequences for good performance.3 .

3 . training may not be the best solution. consequences. or feedback are inadequate. output. employees have the knowledge and skill to perform but input.  If .23 Is training the best solution?  If employees lack the knowledge and skill to perform and the other factors are satisfactory. training is needed.

skills. and abilities required to complete the tasks.  Task analysis should only be undertaken after you have determined from the organizational analysis that the company wants to devote time and money for training.24 Task Analysis  Task analysis results in a description of work activities. including tasks performed by the employee and the knowledge. .3 .

3 .  Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the job.25 Steps in a Task Analysis  Select the job(s) to be analyzed. skills. or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task.  Identify the knowledge. .  Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks.

26 Competency Models A competency refers to areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks. skills. and personality characteristics underlying each competency. or personal characteristics. behavior.3 . A competency can be knowledge. . values. A competency model identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge. attitudes. skills.

They help determine what skills are needed at different career points. They provide a tool for determining what skills are needed to meet today’s needs as well as the company’s future needs. . They create a “roadmap” for identifying and developing employees who may be candidates for managerial positions. They provide a framework for ongoing coaching and feedback to develop employees for current and future roles.27 Competency models are useful for training and development in several ways:      They identify behaviors needed for effective job performance.3 .

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