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• • • • • • QoS Processes QoS Scheme Priority Queue Packet Loss Priority Drop Profile Configuration of QoS

The router then decides which queue to service based on a particular method of scheduling. • Queuing After a packet is sent to the outgoing interface on a router. The amount of time a packet is queued on the router is determined by the availability of the outgoing physical media as well as the amount of traffic using the interface. .QoS Processes • Classification refers to the examination of an incoming packet. • Scheduling An individual router interface may have multiple queues assigned to store packets. it is queued for transmission on the physical media. This function often associates the packet with a particular CoS servicing level. • Rewrite Rules sets the appropriate CoS bits in the outgoing packet. This process often involves a determination of which type of packet should be transmitted before another. This allows the next downstream router to classify the packet into the appropriate service group (forwarding class).

Based on the mark. the Low Priority Queue will have to wait. Classifier check the marked of the packet either in IP Header or EXP Bit in MPLS Label Header. The scheduler will manage how big is the transmit rate and buffer memory for each forwarding class.QoS Scheme • • • • Data. The High Priority Queues are transmitted in Round Robin. and the Low Priority Queues are in the other Round Robin. The Random Early Discard (RED) is applied based on the drop profile. The queue is in profile when the transmitted traffic is less than the allocated bandwidth for the queue. the classifier will decide which loss priority & priority queue will be applied to the packet. then it will put each packet to the appropriate forwarding class. As long as there is a packet of the high priority queue in profile. . This mechanism helps the TCP traffic to manage network congestion. The fullness of buffer will determine the probability of the packet will be drop when it arrives on the head of the queue. Nb and Sigtran packets come at the same time.

The router then locates all low-priority queues that are currently in profile. The router then locates all high-priority queues that are currently out of profile and that are not rate limited.Priority Queue The JUNOS software performs priority queuing using the following steps: 1. These queues are also serviced using a weighted roundrobin scheme. 4. 2. The router finally locates all low-priority queues that are currently out of profile and are also not rate limited. These queues are serviced first in a weighted round-robin fashion. 3. These queues are serviced last in a weighted round-robin manner. The router first locates all high-priority queues that are currently in profile. The weighted round-robin algorithm is applied to these queues for servicing. .

The probability drop packet versus interface fullness is defined in drop profile parameter (diagram).Packet Loss Priority (PLP) To manage congestion. the Random Early Drop (RED) is applied so the packet at the head of the queue will have probability variously depends on the fullness of the outgoing interface. . This drop mechanism is useful for TCP traffic which has ability to resend the drop packet and to avoid one TCP session flooding the link.

if the random number more than 25% . Rather. Drop probability % 25 50 100 drop 0 Fullness % 75 100 When buffer fullness is 75%. cells are dropped after they reach the head of the queue. the queue no longer drops result cells from the tail of the queue. On the other hand if the random number is less than 25%.Drop profile transmit Once RED is operational on an interface. the router generates a random number to plot against the drop profile graph. At this point. . it ( ) is under the line. the packet is dropped. so the packet is transmitted. This ultimately determines if the result cell is dropped from the network or transmitted out the physical interface. it ( )is above the line.

The router will recognize this code and classified the packed based on this code.Configuration of QoS • Defining Code Points This code defines user friendly name mapped to bit code. The bit code is marked in the IP Header or MPLS Header. Code point type: dscp Alias Bit pattern af11 001010 af12 001100 af13 001110 .

Taufiq Budiman .Configuration of QoS (cont. Example: noc@JKT-PE05> show configuration class-of-service forwarding-classes queue 0 best_effort_data. queue 1 critical_data. queue 3 network_control.) • Forwarding Classes The forwarding class is referenced in both a classifier and a rewrite rule. queue 2 real_time_and_video. the forwarding classes are closely aligned with the operation and definitions of the router’s queues. In addition.

Configuration of QoS (Cont. the drop profile defines parameters that allow the packet to be dropped from the network. Simply put. noc@JKT-PE05> show configuration class-of-service drop-profiles high_drop_priority_be { interpolate { fill-level [ 30 50 70 90 100 ]. the drop probability is a percentage value that correlates to the likelihood that an individual packet is dropped from the network.) A drop profile is the most basic building block of implementing a random early discard (RED) configuration. } } Taufiq Budiman . The two main portions of the drop profile are the queue fullness and the drop probability. Only the result cells sent by the Internet Processor ASIC are stored in this queue memory. In a similar manner. } } low_drop_priority_be { interpolate { fill-level [ 50 70 90 100 ]. drop-probability [ 0 25 50 75 100 ]. drop-probability [ 0 50 75 100 ]. The queue fullness represents a percentage of the memory used to store result cells in relation to the total amount that has been allocated for that specific queue.

drop-profile-map loss-priority any protocol tcp drop-profile drop_priority_critical_data. buffer-size percent 15.Scheduler Configuration of QoS Scheduler is to define the properties of an individual queue: •Bandwidth assigned for the queue (outgoing interface). drop-profile-map loss-priority low protocol tcp drop-profile low_drop_priority_video_and_realtime. priority high. drop-profile-map loss-priority high protocol tcp drop-profile high_drop_priority_best_efforts. •Drop Profile for RED. drop-profile-map loss-priority low protocol tcp drop-profile low_drop_priority_best_efforts. } . } sch_real_time_scheduler { transmit-rate percent 50. priority high. noc@JKT-PE05 show configuration class-of-service schedulers | display inheritance sch_be_scheduler { transmit-rate remainder. it is transmit-rate. buffer-size percent 30. priority high. •Priority for the queue. buffer-size remainder. it is buffer-size. buffer-size percent 5. priority low. •Memory buffer allocated for the result cells (out going FPC). drop-profile-map loss-priority high protocol tcp drop-profile high_drop_priority_video_and_realtime. } sch_network_control { transmit-rate percent 5. } sch_critical_scheduler { transmit-rate percent 15.

noc@JKT-PE05 show configuration class-of-service scheduler-maps map_scheduler { forwarding-class best_effort_data scheduler sch_be_scheduler. forwarding-class network_control scheduler sch_network_control.Scheduler-map Scheduler-map functions: Associating individual scheduler to outgoing interface and forwarding class. } . forwarding-class critical_data scheduler sch_critical_scheduler. forwarding-class real_time_and_video scheduler sch_real_time_scheduler.