Quality Models

Agile Methods

What is Agile?

Agile methodology is an approach to project management, typically used in software development. It helps teams respond to the unpredictability of building software through incremental, iterative work cadences, known as sprints.

Where did it come from?

In 1970, Dr. Winston Royce presented a paper entitled ―Managing the Development of Large Software Systems‖ which outlined his ideas on sequential development. In essence, his presentation asserted that a project could be developed much like an automobile on an assembly line, in which each piece is added in sequential phases. This means that every phase of the project must be completed before the

but. a company has spent time and money to create software that no one wants. a team might have built the software it was asked to build. business realities have changed so dramatically that the product is irrelevant.Where did it come from?  do you think you could tell a team of developers everything that needed to be in a piece of software before it was up and running? Or would it be easier to describe your vision to the team if you could react to functional software? Many software developers have learned the answer to that question the hard way: At the end of a project. In that scenario. Couldn’t it have been possible to ensure the end product would still be relevant before it was actually finished?  . in the time it took to create.

known as sprints or iterations. Thus by focusing on the repetition of abbreviated work cycles as well as the functional product they yield. at the end of which teams must present a shippable increment of work. . agile methodology could be described as ―iterative‖ and ―incremental‖.Why Agile?   Agile development methodology attempts to provide many opportunities to assess the direction of a project throughout the development lifecycle. This is achieved through regular cadences of work.

design. etc. every aspect of development. requirements. . it is continually revisited throughout the lifecycle. there’s always time to steer it in another direction. When a team stops and reevaluates the direction of a project every two weeks.Why Agile?   In an agile paradigm. The results of this ―inspect-and-adapt‖ approach to development greatly reduce both development costs and time to market.

Six Sigma .

What is Six Sigma?  Six Sigma is a rigorous and a systematic methodology that utilizes information (management by facts) and statistical analysis to measure and improve a company's operational performance. practices and systems by identifying and preventing 'defects' in manufacturing and service-related processes in order to anticipate and exceed expectations of all stakeholders to accomplish effectiveness. .

bear the acronyms DMAIC and DMADV. ◦ DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs. It is pronounced as "duh-may-ick". composed of five phases each.Methods  Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle. . It is pronounced as "duh-mad-vee". ◦ DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process. These methodologies.

2. 4. the voice of the customer. visual workplaces. future state process. and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. poka yoke or mistake proofing. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability. Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments. and standard work to create a new.DMAIC method  The DMAIC project methodology has five phases: 1. Determine what the relationships are. production boards . Implement control systems such as statistical process control. Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. 3. . Define the problem. and the project goals. Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. and continuously monitor the process. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation. specifically. 5.

and risks. 4. Verify the design. This phase may require simulations. 5. also known as DFSS ("Design For Six Sigma"). Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality).DMADV or DFSS method  The DMADV project methodology. set up pilot runs. 2. optimize the design. and plan for design verification. . Analyze to develop and design alternatives. Design details. features five phases: 1. create a high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design. product capabilities. production process capability. Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s). 3.

Following this approach. Black Belt etc.).  .Certificate  Corporations such as early Six Sigma pioneers General Electric and Motorola developed certification programs as part of their Six Sigma implementation. many organizations in the 1990s starting offering Six Sigma certifications to their employees. verifying individuals' command of the Six Sigma methods at the relevant skill level (Green Belt.

and different certification services are offered by various quality associations and other providers against a fee  . some companies simply require participation in a course and a Six Sigma project. There is no standard certification body.Certificate (cont.)  Criteria for Green Belt and Black Belt certification vary.

Program management tools. Data Collection tools that feed information directly into the analysis tools and significantly reduce the time spent gathering data . 2. used to manage and track a corporation's entire Six Sigma program 3.Application  There are generally four classes of software used to support Six Sigma: 1. Microsoft Visio. DMAIC and Lean online project collaboration tools for local and global teams 4. Analysis tools. which are used to perform statistical or process analysis like: IBM WebSphere Business Modeler. Oracle Crystal Ball.

Criticism Lack of originality  Role of consultants  Potential negative effects  Lack of Proof of evidence of its success  .

IEEE Standards .

IEEE standards .

performance.‖ meaning that they are constantly evolving and can be updated. or withdrawn. methods. safety and reliability.  Drive/create markets and drive technology.What are standards?  Specifications that define materials. . processes or practices. superseded.  Are "living documents.  Provide a basis for determining consistent and acceptable levels of quality.

IEEE Societies often sponsor standards working groups. Working groups may or may not be IEEE-SA members. . IEEE provides support services to standards working groups through the IEEE Standards Association. Working group membership draws from all sectors (industry. Standards developed at IEEE must be approved by the IEEE-SA Standards Board. academia). Balloting requires IEEE-SA membership. government.Who develops IEEE standards        Working groups develop IEEE Standards.

Examples of standards Examples of standards at work: •Format of credit cards •Size of railroad tracks •Electrical lines •Wi-Fi protocols .

000 Individual IEEE-SA members (from 110 countries) .Facts About IEEE Standards  850+ active standards  400+ standards projects in development  200+ standards ballots conducted annually  78 Corporate IEEE-SA members (from 10 countries)  8.

 Developing value-added product and services. .  Supporting and overseeing the IEEE-SA Standards Board and IEEE-SA Board of Governors.  Supporting IEEE-SA members and program participants. IEEE Standards Association staff are available to assist working groups with the administrative procedures that must be done during the standards development process.What Does the IEEE Standards Association Do? The IEEE Standards Association supports the development of standards at IEEE by:  Overseeing standards development and publishing. IEEE Members can join the IEEE Standards Association and participate in the content development side of the standards development process.  marketing both product and programs.

browse. download and print standards and drafts. Free trials are available by submitting a business card to IEEE Sales and Marketing for follow-up and trial setup. E-mail alerts advise members when new standards and drafts are added in their area of interest. Users can fully search.  IEEE also offers Standards Online access solutions for corporations via IEEE Xplore.Products: Standards Online IEEE Standards Online Subscriptions is an annual Web-based service that lets users view and download full collections of standards and drafts.  .

forms. Browser-based access to content within the standard. glossary. software tools.  Purchase through IEEE Online Catalog.  Features like navigation links.Products: VoSpec VuSpec provides the following. figures and tables. and index.  Provides related material. search.   .

and handbooks on standards.  Offers tutorials. guides.Products: Standards Information Network Standards Information Network (SIN)  Releases information on standards implementation. .

Popular Standards      National Electrical Safety Code Color Books for industrial and commercial power plants Software Engineering 802 Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Design Automation .

 Management of the IEEE Standards Association membership. . including an attorney on staff. ranging from web-page hosting to balloting. who participate in the standards development process.  Strong legal foundation and administration of IP rules.IEEE Standards Services Overview IEEE-SA supplies:  Administrative and project management.  Clear paths to internationalization and marketing assistance.  Editing to ensure standards are consistent with accepted writing practices.  Internet-based tools.

It allows a working group to customize the services it uses to what it needs.Standards Development IEEE Standards Development Online is a website that consolidates the critical mass of standards development process and procedure information. IEEE Standards Development Solutions offers a flexible and cost effective set of dedicated services beyond IEEE’s basic/at no charge services. .

ISO 9000-9001 .

on which the family of standards is based.  ISO 9001deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard have to fulfill. the International Organization of Standards.  . The standards are published by ISO.  ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems. and available through National Standards Bodies.ISO 9000 Family of Standards The ISO 9000 family of standards relates to quality management systems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders.

A number of major purchasers require their suppliers to hold ISO 9001 certification.Reason for use  The ISO family of standards is the only international standard that addresses systemic change. The global adoption of ISO 9001 may be attributable to a number of factors. a number of studies have identified significant financial benefits for organizations certified to ISO 9001 . In addition to several stakeholders’ benefits.

It was based on the BS 5750 series of standards from BSI that were proposed to ISO in 1979.Background  ISO 9000 was first published in 1987. MIL-Q-9858 was revised into the NATO AQAP series of standards in 1969. to the publication of the Department of Defence MIL-Q-9858 standard in 1959. its history can be traced back some twenty years before that. which in turn were revised into the BS 5179 series of guidance standards published in 1974. However. . and finally revised into the BS 5750 series of requirements standards in 1979 before being submitted to ISO.

of Certificates 257.484 59.076 130.156 41.935 23.066 68.152 47.400 .Global Adoption Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country China Italy Japan Spain Russian Federation Germany United Kingdom India USA Korea No.493 28.193 37.576 53.

The quality system is regularly audited and evaluated for conformance and effectiveness. inquiries. The business determines customer requirements. The business makes decisions about the quality system based on recorded data. . Each employee works towards measurable objectives. The business has created systems for communicating with customers about product information.Summary of ISO 9001        The quality policy is a formal statement from management. orders. The quality policy is understood and followed at all levels and by all employees. feedback. and complaints. Records show how and where raw materials and products were processed to allow products and problems to be traced to the source. contracts. closely linked to the business and marketing plan and to customer needs.

with appropriate testing at each stage.‖  When developing new products. customers. (2) determines what to do with bad product. the business plans the stages of development. It keeps records of these activities and the resulting decisions. It has a documented procedure for internal audits. It tests and documents whether the product meets design requirements. (3) deals with the root cause of problems.     . The business determines whether the quality system is working and what improvements can be made.Summary of ISO 9001 ―cont. The business regularly reviews performance through internal audits and meetings. or internal problems). and (4) keeps records to use as a tool to improve the system. regulatory requirements. and monitors their effectiveness. The business has documented procedures for dealing with actual and potential nonconformances (problems involving suppliers. The business deals with past problems and potential problems. The business (1) makes sure no one uses bad product. and user needs.

 . but must be renewed at regular intervals recommended by the certification body. usually around three years.  An ISO certificate is not a once-and-for-all award. Both the accreditation bodies and the certification bodies charge fees for their services. which audit organizations applying for ISO 9001 compliance certification.Certification ISO does not itself certify organizations. Many countries have formed accreditation bodies to authorize certification bodies.  There are no grades of competence within ISO 9001: either a company is certified or it is not.

yet the ISO 9001 guidelines. can be applied to each of these.  . its parts must be carefully interpreted to make sense within a particular organization. because they are business management guidelines. professional soccer teams (Mexico) and city councils (UK)—have successfully implemented ISO 9001:2000 systems.  Diverse organizations—police departments (US).Industry Specific Interpretations The ISO 9001 standard is generalized and abstract.  Developing software is not like making cheese or offering counseling services.

Aerospace Basic Quality System Standard PS 9000 * QS 9000 – Automotive manufacturers TL 9000 – Telecom Quality Management and Measurement System Standard ISO 13485:2003 medical industry's equivalent of ISO 9001 ISO/IEC 90003:2004 – Computer Software ISO/TS 29001 – Petroleum and Petrochemical industries .Industry Specific Interpretations        TickIT .information technology industry AS9000 .

awareness. . effective operation  Increases customer satisfaction and retention  Reduces audits  Enhances marketing  Improves employee motivation.Advantages Implementing ISO often gives the following advantages:  Creates a more efficient. and morale  Promotes international trade  Increases profit  Reduces waste and increases productivity.

 While internationally recognized.  The standard is seen as especially prone to failure when a company is interested in certification before quality  . The cost can actually put a company at a competitive disadvantage when competing against a non-ISO 9000-certified company. time.Problems amount of money. Solution: if a company has documented its quality systems. most consumers are not aware of ISO 9000 and it holds no relevance to them. and paperwork required for registration. then most of the paperwork has already been completed. The added cost to certify and then maintain certification may not be justified if product end users do not require ISO 9000.

wikipedia.org/about/volunteers/training/stand ards/index.wikipedia.org/ Wikipedia http://en.html    Six Sigma website http://www.ieee.References  IEEE website volunteer training (standards Module) http://www.isixsigma.com/index.org/wiki/Six_Sigma http://en.php Agile methodology website http://agilemethodology.org/wiki/ISO_9000 .wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Six_Sigma_soft ware_packages http://en.

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