# 1

 Flux of a Vector Field

 Flux of the Electric Field

 Gauss‟ Law

 A Charged isolated conductor

 Applications of Gauss‟ law
Gauss’ Law
2
Flux
 The word “flux” comes from the latin
word meaning “to flow”

 For a vector field flux is the number of
lines passing through a surface
3
Flux of a vector field
 Vector field
 Velocity field of a flowing fluid
 The velocity field is a representation of a fluid flow
 Field itself is not flowing but is a fixed representation of the
flow
Water flow
P
In the velocity field of a water flow point “p” represents the
flow of water (fluid)
Velocity field
4
Electric flux
Given a charge distribution we can determine an electric
field at a point using coulomb „s law
P
E
E
F
=
q
Where the total field “E” is the vector
sum of all the fields due to all the point
charges at point “P”
Alternatively if an electric field E is given we can determine
the charge distribution
To find out the charge distribution we need to know the
electric flux and Gauss‟s law
5
Electric flux
Number of electric lines of force passing through a surface
of area “A” perpendicular to the electric field E
A
E
Mathematically it is the product of the surface area “A” and
the component of the electric field “E” perpendicular to the
surface
Φ
E
= EA Nm
2
/C
6
Electric flux
Empty enclosed surface  no electric field
+q
E
Electric field
directed outward
Electric field
directed inward
Positive charge
enclosed
Negative charge
enclosed
-q
E
Outward flux
No flux
Inward flux
7

E
 In this case the box is placed inside an electric field of
some out side charge distribution
 Again here the net flux is zero, because the number of lines
entering the box is exactly the same as leaving the box
Electric flux
8
+q
E
+2q
E
Electric flux
Electric flux through a surface is directly proportional to the
magnitude of charges enclosed by that surface
9
The electric flux increases:
 with A
 with E
A
E Φ
E
= EA
Electric flux
10
If area “A” is not exactly perpendicular
to the electric field E
Φ
E
= EAcos|
A E
E
- = u
Or
Electric flux
Flux will be maximum when surface
area is perpendicular to the electric
field
Φ
E
= EA
11
Flux through an Arbitrary Shape
 E is not uniform
 Divide the arbitrary shape
into small squares of area ΔA
 The direction of ΔA is
drawn outward
 Calculate the electric flux at
each square and sum all these
This is a surface integral, i.e. an integral
over a closed surface, enclosing a
volume
A d E
- = u
}
A E
A - = u
¿
12
Sample problem 2: Find the electric flux through a cylindrical surface in a
uniform electric field E
a.
b.
c.
Net Flux÷ a + b + c = 0
2
180 cos R E EdA dA E t ÷ = ÷ = = u
} }
θdA Ecos
}
=
0 90 cos = =
}
dA E Φ
2
) 0 cos( R E EdA dA E t = = = u
} }
A d E Φ
- =
}
13
Gauss’s law
 Simplify electric field calculation
 Gives an in site about the electric charge distribution over
the conducting body
 Gives a relation between the electric filed at all the points
on the surface and the charge enclosed within the surface
 Gauss‟s law is used to analyze experiments that test the
validity of Coulomb‟s law
 It is an alternative to Coulomb‟s law for expressing the
relationship between electric charge and electric field
14
The total electric flux through any closed
surface is proportional to the total electric
charge inside the surface
Gauss’s law
encl
E
q
· u
encl
q
A d E
}
= -
0
c
encl
E
q
= u
0
c
A E
E
- = u
where
Relates net electric flux
to the net enclosed
electric charge
}
= -
0
c
encl
q
A d E
15
Gauss’ Law & Coulomb’s Law
Let us consider a
positive point charge q

Surround the charge with
an imaginary surface –
the Gaussian Surface

+
dA
E
The angel between vector area and
E field is zero everywhere
}
= -
q A d E
0
c
}
=
q A Ed
0
c
16
+
dA
E
The E field is uniform and
thus constant everywhere
Where “ 4πr
2
” is the area of
circular surface
}
=
q A Ed
0
c
2 2
0
2
0
0
4
) 4 (
r
kq
r
q
E
q r E
q A d E
= =
=
=
}
t c
t c
c
17
Infinite Line of Charges
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

 Let us consider an infinite line of positive
charge with a linear charge density ì = q/h
 We wish to find the E field at a distance r
from the line
Applications of Gauss‟ Law
E
dA
h
Let us now enclose this line with a
cylindrical Gaussian surface
The symmetry indicates that E field will
have only the radial components and there is
no flux at the ends
18
Infinite Line of Charges
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

E
dA
h
Now according the Gauss law
Gauss‟s law for electric field determination
due to a charge distribution is the simplest of
all
r
E
h rh E
q A d E
0
0
0
2
) 2 (
tc
ì
ì t c
c
=
=
=
}
19
Infinite Sheet of Charge
Let us now consider portion
of nonconducting (Insulator)
sheet of charge having a
charge density o (charge per
unit area)
Consider an imaginary
cylindrical Gaussian surface
inserted into sheet
 The charge enclosed by the
surface is q = o A
20
 Due to symmetry we can conclude that E field is right
angles to the end caps
 There is no flux from the curved surface of the cylindrical
There is equal flux out of both caps
Infinite Sheet of Charge
A very useful result that can be directly applied
on similar applications of Gauss’ Law
0
0
0
0
2
2
) (
c
o
o c
o c
c
=
=
= +
=
}
E
A EA
A EA EA
q A d E
21
Gauss’ Law & Conductors
 Conductors are materials that are electrically neutral
 There is no net charge inside an isolated metal ball
 And therefore the E field inside an isolated conductor is
zero
 Suppose we are able to inject some charge into the
center of the metal ball
 What would then happen?
+
22
Gauss’ Law & Conductors
 Initially there would be an E field that would cause all
the charges to redistribute
 Within nanoseconds the charges would settle and stop
moving, which is called an electrostatic equilibrium
 And there would then be no net charges inside conductor
 If there were any…we would see current inside…which
is never observed
 The excess charges do not disappear from the scene
These excess charges appear as electrostatic charges at
the surface
+
+
+
+
+
+
23
Property of Conductors
An excess charge placed on or inside an
isolated conductor moves entirely to the
outer surface of the conductor. None of
the excess charge is found within the
body of the conductor
24
A Thin Conducting Plate
Suppose we take a thin conducting plate
This plate has definitely two surfaces
And spray a charge q on any surface
This charge q will move and will spread
over both the surfaces
Each surface will have a charge equal to
q/2
And now we try to apply Gauss‟ Law
Applications of Gauss’ Law
E
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

E
E E
25
A Thin Conducting Plate
0
2c
o
= E
E=0
We can think of the situation
as two noncouducting charged
sheets connected back-to-back
each resulting in
0
c
o
= E
The total E field of a thin
conducting plate would then be
E
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

E
E E
26
Two Thin Conducting Plates with Opposite
Charge
E = 0
E
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E = 0
Let we bring closer
two thin conducting
sheets each with an
equal and opposite
charge of magnitude of
q
Both conductors now cannot be considered
as isolated conductors
27
E = 0
E
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E = 0
The charges on both plates will
move towards the inner
surfaces due to force of
attraction
0
2c
o
= E
Each surface will set
up an E field
The net E field can
thus be given as
0
c
o
= E
28
0
c
o
= E
E = 0
E
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E = 0
Putting o =q/A
0
c A
q
E =
This is the electrical field of a parallel plate capacitor

Flux

 The word “flux” comes from the latin word meaning “to flow”  For a vector field flux is the number of lines passing through a surface

2

Flux of a vector field  Vector field  Velocity field of a flowing fluid  The velocity field is a representation of a fluid flow  Field itself is not flowing but is a fixed representation of the flow Velocity field P Water flow In the velocity field of a water flow point “p” represents the 3 flow of water (fluid) .

Electric flux Given a charge distribution we can determine an electric field at a point using coulomb „s law E = F q Where the total field “E” is the vector sum of all the fields due to all the point charges at point “P” E P Alternatively if an electric field E is given we can determine the charge distribution To find out the charge distribution we need to know the electric flux and Gauss‟s law 4 .

Electric flux Number of electric lines of force passing through a surface of area “A” perpendicular to the electric field E E A Mathematically it is the product of the surface area “A” and the component of the electric field “E” perpendicular to the surface ΦE = EA Nm2 /C 5 .

Electric flux Empty enclosed surface  no electric field No flux E Electric field Positive charge +q directed outward enclosed Outward flux E Negative charge enclosed -q Electric field directed inward Inward flux 6 .

Electric flux +δ E  In this case the box is placed inside an electric field of some out side charge distribution  Again here the net flux is zero. because the number of lines entering the box is exactly the same as leaving the box 7 .

Electric flux E +q E +2q Electric flux through a surface is directly proportional to the magnitude of charges enclosed by that surface 8 .

Electric flux The electric flux increases:  with A  with E E A ΦE = EA 9 .

Electric flux If area “A” is not exactly perpendicular to the electric field E E  E  A ΦE = EAcos Or Flux will be maximum when surface area is perpendicular to the electric field ΦE = EA 10 .

an integral over a closed surface.Flux through an Arbitrary Shape  E is not uniform  Divide the arbitrary shape into small squares of area ΔA  The direction of ΔA is drawn outward  Calculate the electric flux at each square and sum all these    E  DA   E  dA This is a surface integral.e. i. enclosing a 11 volume .

Φ   E cos 90dA  0 Net Flux a + b + c = 0 12 c.Sample problem 2: Find the electric flux through a cylindrical surface in a uniform electric field E Φ   E  dA   E cos θdA a.    E cos180dA   EdA   ER 2 b.    E cos(0)dA   EdA  ER 2 .

Gauss’s law  Simplify electric field calculation  Gives an in site about the electric charge distribution over the conducting body  Gives a relation between the electric filed at all the points on the surface and the charge enclosed within the surface  Gauss‟s law is used to analyze experiments that test the validity of Coulomb‟s law  It is an alternative to Coulomb‟s law for expressing the relationship between electric charge and electric field 13 .

Gauss’s law The total electric flux through any closed surface is proportional to the total electric charge inside the surface  E  qencl e 0  E  qencl E  E  A e 0  E  dA  qencl where  E  dA  qencl e0 Relates net electric flux to the net enclosed electric charge 14 .

Gauss’ Law & Coulomb’s Law Let us consider a E positive point charge q Surround the charge with an imaginary surface – the Gaussian Surface dA + e 0  E  dA  q The angel between vector area and E field is zero everywhere e 0  EdA  q 15 .

e 0  EdA  q The E field is uniform and thus constant everywhere + E dA e 0 E  dA  q e 0 E (4r 2 )  q q kq  2 E 2 e 0 4r r Where “ 4πr2” is the area of circular surface 16 .

Applications of Gauss‟ Law Infinite Line of Charges  Let us consider an infinite line of positive charge with a linear charge density  = q/h  We wish to find the E field at a distance r from the line ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++ Let us now enclose this line with a cylindrical Gaussian surface h dA E The symmetry indicates that E field will have only the radial components and there is no flux at the ends 17 .

Infinite Line of Charges Now according the Gauss law ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++ e 0 E  dA  q e 0 E (2rh)  h  E 2e 0 r h dA E Gauss‟s law for electric field determination due to a charge distribution is the simplest of all 18 .

Infinite Sheet of Charge  Let us now consider portion of nonconducting (Insulator) sheet of charge having a charge density  (charge per unit area)  Consider an imaginary cylindrical Gaussian surface inserted into sheet  The charge enclosed by the surface is q =  A 19 .

Infinite Sheet of Charge  Due to symmetry we can conclude that E field is right angles to the end caps  There is no flux from the curved surface of the cylindrical There is equal flux out of both caps e 0 E  dA  q e 0 ( EA + EA)  A e 0 2 EA  A  E 2e 0 A very useful result that can be directly applied on similar applications of Gauss’ Law 20 .

Gauss’ Law & Conductors  Conductors are materials that are electrically neutral  There is no net charge inside an isolated metal ball  And therefore the E field inside an isolated conductor is zero  Suppose we are able to inject some charge into the center of the metal ball  What would then happen? + 21 .

Gauss’ Law & Conductors  Initially there would be an E field that would cause all the charges to redistribute  Within nanoseconds the charges would settle and stop moving. which is called an electrostatic equilibrium  And there would then be no net charges inside conductor  If there were any…we would see current inside…which is never observed  The excess charges do not disappear from the scene  These excess charges appear as electrostatic charges at the surface + + + 22 + + + .

None of the excess charge is found within the body of the conductor 23 .Property of Conductors An excess charge placed on or inside an isolated conductor moves entirely to the outer surface of the conductor.

Applications of Gauss’ Law A Thin Conducting Plate  Suppose we take a thin conducting plate  This plate has definitely two surfaces  And spray a charge q on any surface  This charge q will move and will spread over both the surfaces  Each surface will have a charge equal to q/2  And now we try to apply Gauss‟ Law E E ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++ ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++ E E 24 .

A Thin Conducting Plate We can think of the situation as two noncouducting charged sheets connected back-to-back each resulting in E=0 E E ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++ ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++  E 2e 0 The total E field of a thin conducting plate would then be E E  E e0 25 .

Two Thin Conducting Plates with Opposite Charge Let we bring closer two thin conducting sheets each with an equal and opposite charge of magnitude of E=0 q E Both conductors now cannot be considered as isolated conductors + + + + + + + + + E=0 26 .

The charges on both plates will move towards the inner surfaces due to force of attraction E=0 Each surface will set up an E field  E 2e 0 + + + + + + + + + E - E=0 The net E field can thus be given as  E e0 27 .

 E e0 Putting  =q/A E=0 q E Ae 0 + + + + + + + + + E - E=0 This is the electrical field of a parallel plate capacitor 28 .

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