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Database History 1

Presented by: Asraf (Satu)

An early attempt to computerize the manual filing system Before the Database systems evolved, data in software systems was stored in and represented using flat files. Flat files are data files that contain records with no structured relationships. Files equivalent to tables A collection of data about a specific subject or a distinct topic.

File-Based Systems

File-Based Systems
Customer File
Customer_I D 1 2 First_Name Andy Ronald Last_Name Jackson Baker Email Order_Number 67 45

4 5

Peter Clark

Parker Kent

32 12



A file based system is a collection of application programs that perform services for the users wishing to access information. Each program within a file based system defines and manages its own data. Basically, you have Individual files for each type of information

File-Based Systems

File-Based Systems
Checking Customer Application Checking Customer Data File Book List Application Book List Data File

Order Application

Sales Data File

In a file-based system, different programs in the same application may be interacting with different private data files. There is no system enforcing any standardized control on the organization and structure of these data files.

File-Based Systems

Problems of File-based Systems

Data separation and isolation -Though data used by different programs in the application may be related, they reside in isolated data files. Data dependence -File structure is defined in the program code. -Changes to an existing structure are difficult to make Data duplication -Cost time and money to enter data more than once -Additional storage space is needed - cost -Inconsistencies of data

File-Based Systems

Incompatible data (different file formats) -Programs are written in different languages, and so cannot easily access each others files. Fixed Queries/Proliferation of application programs -Programs are written to satisfy particular functions. -Any new requirement needs a new program. -handling sudden queries can be difficult, since it requires changes in the existing programs.

File-Based Systems


A database is an organized body of related information in a common pool from where , multiple users could fetch the data. The main purpose of a database system is storing data, processing and providing easy methods for lookup. To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.


Checking Customer Application

Book List Application



Order Application Due to its centralized nature, the database system can overcome the disadvantages of the file-based system


Problems of database Unproductive maintanence Lack of security


Customer Customer_ID First_Name Last_Name Email Order_No

Order Order_No Book_ID Cost

Book List Book_ID Genre Authors Price

entity-relationship (ER) diagram

Database Application Life Cycle

the continuous process of managing the life of a database through governance, development and maintenance

1. Requirement Analysis assess the needs of an organization so that an aplication can be designed to meet those needs.

2. Logical design A conceptual model is created based on the needs assessment performed in stage one. A conceptual model is typically an entity-relationship (ER) diagram that shows the tables, fields, and primary keys of the database, and how tables are related (linked) to one another. The tables sketched in the ER diagram are then normalized. The normalization process resolves any problems associated with the database design, so that data can be accessed quickly and efficiently. 3. Physical Design maximize database efficiency. Manipulating certain database design elements can speed up the two slowest operations in an RDBMS: retrieving data from and writing data to a database.

4. Implementation During the implementation stage of the DBLC, the tables developed in the ER diagram (and subsequently normalized) are converted into SQL statements and fed into the RDBMS to create a database. By this stage in the DBLC, the System Administrator has installed and configured an RDBMS.

5. Monitoring, modification, and maintenance A successfully implemented database must be carefully monitored to ensure that its functioning properly. Database modification involves adding and deleting records, importing data from other systems (as needed), and creating additional tables, user views, and other objects and tools. As an organization grows, its information system must grow to remain useful. related _file_system_and_a_database_management_system tabase_file_based_systems.php