. This also prevents air from entering the lungs. thus depriving the victim of oxygen and eventually leading t unconsciousness and death . A secondary risk for the rescued person is that he or she may choke on vomit as water in the stomach forces the stomach contents upward.DROWNING • When a person is drowning . A near drowning person also faces the risk of hypothermia.the air passages close to prevent water entering the lungs.

. 2. Open the airway by tilting the head. If the victim is not breathing. If the victim is breathing.TREATMENT 1. checking the mouth. and lifting the chin. Check for breathing for up to 10 seconds. 3. place into the recovery position. provide rescue breathing before moving into an assessment of circulation and full CPR as necessary.

and may eventually deteriorate into unconsciousness. the blood’s circulation through the body will deteriorate and the remaining blood flow will be directed t the vital organs such as the brain. The victim may appear t be confused. weak.SHOCK • A severe loss of blood fluid will lead to a drop in blood pressure. Eventually. and dizzy. .

CAUSES • Severe internal or external bleeding • Burns • Severe vomiting and diarrhea • Problems with the heart .

• MENTAL REST.reassure the victim but keep your comments realistic.keep the victim still and preferably sitting or lying down.keep the victim warm but do not allow her to get overheated. .TREATMENT • WARTH.maintain a careful eye on the victim’s airway and be prepared to turn her into the recovery position if necessary or even resuscitate if breathing stops. • AIR. • REST.

• TREATMENT.treat the cause of the shock and aim to prevent further fluid loss. . • HELP.ensure that appropriate medical help is on the way.

BREATHING DIFFICULTIES • HYPERVENTILATION.a breathing difficulty that may be triggered by the stress of an accident or some other form of emotional shock. .

and you are certain that there is no underlying condition such as asthma or chest injury.TREATMENT 1. If the victim is otherwise uninjured. 2. If the situation persists. let the victim inhale her own breathed-out air from a paper bag. Reassure the victim but remain calm and speak firmly. Encourage the victim to regain control of her breathing. 3. remove her from the scene of the accident to a quiet place where there is no audience. .

4. Call a doctor or ambulance if symptoms do not disappear. .

ASTHMA • Asthma attacks cause the muscles of the air passages to go into spasm. particularly to exhale. making it very difficult for the asthmatic to breathe. . Attacks may be triggered by an allergy or by stress.

TREATMENT 1. 2. as most people with asthma find this an easier position for breathing. Inhalers are the main form of treatment. enable him to use it. Reassure the victim as this will have a positive effect on his breathing. . 3. leaning slightly forward. Help the victim into a sitting position. If the victim has medication.

can kill. The most extreme response is anaphylaxis. if untreated.ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK • An allergy is hypersensitivity to a substance that is not normally considered to be harmful. which may result in anaphylactic shock which. which reacts to the allergen as though it were a harmful substance invading the body. Allergies are triggered by the immune system. .

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