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• • • • Is a condition or quality which gives a feeling of rest, response, equilibrium or stability. Mathematically, objects are balanced when they have equal physical weights and are placed equally distant from a common center or axis. In art, we do not exactly arrange objects of equal physical weights or sizes to produce balance. It is the “visual weights” of lines. Forms, values, textures and colors that we really balance. Visual weight is that “quality which gains and holds attention.” In other words, it is the power of attraction of each of the elements of art. Objects should be balanced horizontally, vertically or diagonally, that is, the attraction should be distributed on either side of the vertical, horizontal or diagonal axis of any arrangement. Therefore, in order to check whether a picture is balanced on a vertical axis or not, cover half of it and compare the exposed part with the portion being covered. If they have equal power attraction, the picture is balanced.
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• Bisymmetrical balance is the balance of identical description. • Bisymmetrical balance is uninteresting pictorially.symmetrical.designed posters and advertisements.Kinds of Balance 1. • This accounts for the informal arrangements found in well. . • The face or head of a normal person looks symmetrical at the front . but it is not considered bi. • Classical paintings and designs are mostly formal while modern arts are usually informal. absolute or perfect balance and symmetrical. apparent or obvious balance. • All bisymmetrical balances are obvious or apparent balance but not all obvious balances are bisymmetrical. • This is the balance of equal visual weights placed at equal distances from the axis. Formal or symmetrical balance. • Formal balance may be subdivided into two: bisymmetrical.
Informal or asymmetrical balance • It is the balance of unequal visual weights. .2. the heavier are one being nearer the axis and the lighter one farther. • Slant or diagonal balance is a form of informal balance in which the objects are balanced on a diagonal axis. • Its synonyms are occult and free balance. the object with the heavier visual weight must appear nearer the axis than the other. • To balance objects on a horizontal axis. • Objects can be balanced formally by changing their distances from the center and by increasing or decreasing the visual weight of one them. • Informal symmetry is more difficult to recognize and to use than the formal one.
closets. similar ratios like (3:5). The Parthenon. which is especially used in buildings and in determining the proportion of margins for framed pictures. Proportions are generally expressed in terms of ratios.Proportion • • • • • • • Is The art principle which shows pleasing relationship between a whole and its parts and between the parts themselves. D. picture frame. windows.dimensional objects or solids is the ratio. (3:8) and (7:10) are used. 5: 7: II. • • . is considered the most perfectly proportioned architectural structure in the world. At present.. houses. The Greek standard for the three. A near duplicate of this is the Lincoln Memorial building in Washington. It is the arrangement of space division in pleasing relationships. Greece.the tables. books. magazines. a building in Athens. The standard Greek proportion for two dimensional or flat surfaces is the Greek oblong or a rectangle whose ratio is two is to three (2:3). it becomes less attractive.C. USA If the dimensions of rectangle approach those of a square or extend very long and narrow. etc. newspapers. Most objects around us are rectangular in form.
Harmony of size is the same as good proportion. Otherwise. An arrangement or grouping of objects may show good or bad proportion. or two objects with three. they will be out of proportion. than to group two objects with two or two with four. Proportion is established when two or more objects are placed near or adjacent to each other. In arranging objects. proportion in space division. it is more pleasing to group three objects with another three. and scales. It is because odd numbers are more interesting than even numbers.There are three (3) aspects of proportion: Proportion in the grouping of objects. . Very small objects should not be grouped with very large ones.
• Hence. texture. • The least thing that should be emphasized in arrangement or composition is the background. and no subordination without emphasis or dominate. • Things to emphasize may be the outline or form color. • The most essential factor in emphasis is complicity. size. idea or value of an object. There is no emphasis without subordination. . • The answer to the question.Emphasis • Is the principle of art which tends to carry the eyes from the center of interest or dominant part of any composition to the less important or subordinate parts. • This is the guiding principle of the Greek and Japanese arts. “what things should be emphasized?” depends upon one’s purpose. it must be plain and should not be more conspicuous than the objects placed before it.
2. By decoration. 4. .Methods of Emphasis Objects 1. The use of contrasting values makes one value more dominant than the other. • Objects which have decorations are better or more emphasized than those without them. Hues of great intensities are more conspicuous than those having lower intensities. • Simple decorations which are placed against sufficient plan background will be more emphatic than when the background space is small. • Contrasting colors such as the complementary combination and the triads are more emphatic than analogous or any other related harmonies. 3. • By arrangement or grouping of objects. By the use of plain background space. By color contrast. If objects are grouped together. the one to be emphasized should be located at the center and should be the biggest and brightest in color.
By action or movement. • Novelty or newness. . a minor art principle. • Dynamic illustrations usually attract more attention than passive ones. shape. By the use of unusual lines. 6.5. A man having unusual height will attract more attention than any individual in a crowd. Very Extraordinary figures or subjects tend to carry the eyes first to them. applies to this method. size of color.
• A work of art must not only posses beauty but also utility. Novelty or newness. Colors of flowers contrast the color of the leaves. This principle has some relationships with balance and emphasis. 3. The center of interest in 2 composition in contrast with the subordinating parts in the same composition. This is especially true to all practical arts. In designing modern structure. functions now the first consideration. Contrast. Man is in contrast with his opposite sex. Nature provides many examples of contrasting objects. Variety or variation. Adaptability. • This is synonymous to opposition or contradiction. The object must be adaptable to the purpose for which it is made. 4. Utility. • A set of furniture which is arranged in a certain way and remains as it is for long periods of time appears to be monotonous in the long run. Two contrasting lines or colors may balance each other. .Other Art Principles The other art principles which are of equal importance are: 1. • A new style of dress or dance appears more attractive and interesting than ordinary dress design or dance. 2. Novelty provides the best opportunity for developing ones creative ability. or function. Variation in the arrangement or style of furniture makes the furniture more interesting and attractive.