loundotions of 6roup 8ehovior loundotions of 6roup 8ehovior

ueflnlng and Classlfylng Croups ueflnlng and Classlfylng Croups
Group:
Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve
particular objectives
A collection oI 2 or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern oI relationship between
them, who share a commons goals and who perceive themselves as being a group
Interaction among members
Common interest or goals
People see themselves as members
Two or more people are needed to Irom groups
Formal Group:
DeIined by the organization`s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks-
eg a task group
Informal Group (Clique):
Alliances that are neither Iormally structured nor organizationally determined eg- interest
group
Appear naturally in response to the need Ior social contact
Deeply aIIect behavior and perIormance
ubclasslflcaLlons of Croups ubclasslflcaLlons of Croups
Formal Groups
Command Group
A group composed oI the
individuals who report
directly to a given manager
%ask Group
Those working together to
complete a job or task in an
organization but not limited
by hierarchical boundaries
Informal Groups
Interest Group
Members work together to
attain a speciIic objective with
which each is concerned
Friendship Group
Those brought together
because they share one or
more common characteristics
Jy Þeople !oln Croups Jy Þeople !oln Croups
$ecurity
$tatus
$elf-esteem
Affiliation
Power
Goal Achievement
lve Lages of Croup uevelopmenL Model lve Lages of Croup uevelopmenL Model
L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ2 L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ2
@e lve Lages of Croup uevelopmenL @e lve Lages of Croup uevelopmenL
Forming
Uncertainty-Not sure what behaviour is acceptable
$torming
Lots oI conIlict-disagreement- challenge is to resolve the
conIlict oI power and tasks structure
3 orming $tage
Leader emerges- group identity and comradery-
4 Performing $tage
Role clarity and task accomplishment-The group is Iinally
Iully Iunctional
5 Adjourning $tage
In temporary groups, characterized by concern with
wrapping up activities rather than perIormance
CrlLlque of Le lveŴLage Model CrlLlque of Le lveŴLage Model
Assumption: the group becomes more effective as it
progresses through the first four stages
Not always true group behavior is more complex
High levels oI conIlict may be conducive to high
perIormance
The process is not always linear
Several stages may occur simultaneously
Groups may regress
Ignores the organizational context
Temporary groups with deadlines dont follow the five-
stage model
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Temporary groups under deadlines go through transitions
between inertia and activityat the halIway point, they
experience an increase in productivity.
Sequence oI Actions
1. Setting group direction
2. First phase oI inertia
3. HalI-way point transition
4. Major changes
5. Second phase oI inertia
6. Accelerated activity
n lLernaLlve Model for Croup ormaLlon n lLernaLlve Model for Croup ormaLlon
Croup ÞroperLles Croup ÞroperLles
uioup
Peifoimance
Noims
Status
Size
Cohesiveness
Roles
Croup ÞroperLy 1ť 8oles Croup ÞroperLy 1ť 8oles
#ole
A set oI expected behavior patterns attributed to someone
occupying a given position in a social unit- eg strategist, leader,
spokesperson oI management etc.
#ole Identity
Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role
#ole Perception
An individual`s view oI how he or she is supposed to act in a given
situation received by external stimuli- (Irom union to mgmt rep)
#ole Expectations
How others believe a person should act in a given situation
!sychological Contract: an unwritten agreement that sets out
mutual expectations oI management and employees
#ole Conflict
A situation in which an individual is conIronted by divergent role
expectations
lmbardo's Þrlson LxperlmenL lmbardo's Þrlson LxperlmenL
Faked a prison using student
volunteers
#andomly assigned to guard and
prisoner roles
Within six days the experiment
was halted due to concerns
Guards had dehumanized the
prisoners
Prisoners were subservient
Fell into the roles as they
understood them
No real resistance Ielt
Croup ÞroperLy 2ť norms Croup ÞroperLy 2ť norms
orms
Acceptable standards oI behavior within a group that are
shared by the group`s members
Classes of orms
PerIormance norms - level oI acceptable work
Appearance norms - what to wear
Social arrangement norms - Iriendships and the like
Allocation oI resources norms - distribution and assignments
oI jobs and material
Croup norms and Le PawLorne Ludles Croup norms and Le PawLorne Ludles
series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western
Electric Companys Hawthorne Works in Chicago between
1924 and 1932
#esearch Conclusions
Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related.
Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting
individual behavior.
Group standards (norms) were highly effective in
establishing individual worker output.
Money was less a factor in determining worker output than
were group standards, sentiments, and security. (319)
norms and 8eavlor norms and 8eavlor
Conformity
Gaining acceptance by adjusting one`s behavior to align with
the norms oI the group
#eference Groups
Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to
belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to
conIorm
Asch $tudies
Demonstrated the power oI conIormance
Culture-based and declining in importance
L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ4 L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ4
eviant Workplace Behavior
Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility
Joluntary behavior that violates significant organi:ational
norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the
organi:ation
Typology:
· Production working speed
· Property damage and stealing
· Political Iavoritism and gossip
· Personal Aggression sexual harassment
uefylng normsť uevlanL Jorkplace 8eavlor uefylng normsť uevlanL Jorkplace 8eavlor
L k n I 8 I 1 9ŴS L k n I 8 I 1 9ŴS
Croup lnfluence on uevlanL 8eavlor Croup lnfluence on uevlanL 8eavlor
Group norms can inIluence the presence oI deviant behavior
Simply belonging to a group increases the likelihood oI
deviance
Being in a group allows individuals to hide creates a Ialse
sense oI conIidence that they won`t be caught
L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ6 L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ6
Croup ÞroperLy 3ť LaLus Croup ÞroperLy 3ť LaLus
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or
group members by others - it differentiates group
members
Important Iactor in understanding behavior
SigniIicant motivator
$tatus Characteristics %heory
Status derived Irom one oI three sources:
· Power a person has over others
· Ability to contribute to group goals
· Personal characteristics
Croup ÞroperLy 4ť lze Croup ÞroperLy 4ť lze
Group size affects behavior
$ize:
Twelve or more members is a 'large¨ group
Seven or Iewer is a 'small¨ group
Best use of a group:
Attribute $mall Large
Speed X
Individual PerIormance X
Problem Solving X
Diverse Input X
Fact-Iinding Goals X
Overall PerIormance X
lssues wlL Croup lze lssues wlL Croup lze
$ocial Loafing
The tendency Ior individuals to expend less eIIort when
working collectively than when working individually
#ingelmanns #ope !ull. greater levels oI productivity but
with diminishing returns as group size increases
Caused by either equity concerns or a diIIusion oI
responsibility (free riders)
Managerial Implications
Build in individual accountability
Prevent social loaIing by:
· Setting group goals
· Increase intergroup competition
· Use peer evaluation
· Distribute group rewards based on individual eIIort
Croup ÞroperLy 3ť Coeslveness Croup ÞroperLy 3ť Coeslveness
egree to which group members are attracted to each
other and are motivated to stay in the group
Managerial Implication
To increase cohesiveness:
· Make the group smaller.
· Encourage agreement with group goals.
· Increase time members spend together.
· Increase group status and admission diIIiculty.
· Stimulate competition with other groups.
· Give rewards to the group, not individuals.
· Physically isolate the group.
Croup ueclslon Maklng vsŦ lndlvldual Colce Croup ueclslon Maklng vsŦ lndlvldual Colce
Group $trengths:
Generate more complete inIormation and knowledge
OIIer increased diversity oI views and greater creativity
Increased acceptance oI decisions
Generally more accurate (but not as accurate as the most
accurate group member)
Group Weaknesses:
Time-consuming activity
ConIormity pressures in the group
Discussions can be dominated by a Iew members
A situation oI ambiguous responsibility
Croup ueclslon Maklng Þenomena Croup ueclslon Maklng Þenomena
Groupthink
Situations where group pressures Ior conIormity deter the
group Irom critically appraising unusual, minority, or
unpopular views
Hinders perIormance
Groupshift
When discussing a given set oI alternatives and arriving at a
solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial
positions that they hold. This causes a shiIt to more
conservative or more risky behavior.
CroupLlnk CroupLlnk
Symptoms:
Group members rationalize any resistance to the
assumptions they have made
Members apply direct pressures on those who express
doubts about shared views or who question the alternative
Iavored by the majority
Members who have doubts or diIIering points oI view keep
silent about misgivings
There appears to be an illusion oI unanimity
Minimize Groupthink by:
Reduce the size oI the group to 10 or less
Encourage group leaders to be impartial
Appoint a 'devil`s advocate¨
Use exercises on diversity
Croup ueclslonŴmaklng @ecnlques Croup ueclslonŴmaklng @ecnlques
Made in interacting groups where members meet face-to-
face and rely on verbal and nonverbal communication.
Brainstorming
An idea-generating process designed to overcome pressure
Ior conIormity
ominal Group %echnique (G%)
Works by restricting discussion during the decision-making
process
Members are physically present but operate independently
Electronic Meeting
Uses computers to hold large meetings oI up to 50 people
LvaluaLlng Croup LffecLlveness LvaluaLlng Croup LffecLlveness
%ype of Group
EIIectiveness Criteria Interacting
Brain-
storming
Nominal Electronic
Number and quality oI ideas Low Moderate High High
Social Pressure High Low Moderate Low
Money Costs Low Low Low High
Speed Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Task Orientation Low High High High
Potential Ior Interpersonal
ConIlict
High Low Moderate Moderate
Commitment to Solution High N/A Moderate Moderate
Development oI Group
Cohesiveness
High High Moderate Low
L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ9 L k n I 8 I 1 9Ŵ9
Clobal lmpllcaLlons Clobal lmpllcaLlons
$tatus and Culture
The importance oI status varies with culture
Managers must understand who and what holds status when
interacting with people Irom another culture
$ocial Loafing
Most oIten in Western (individualistic) cultures
Group iversity
Increased diversity leads to increased conIlict
May cause early withdrawal and lowered morale
II the initial diIIiculties are overcome, diverse groups may
perIorm better
SurIace diversity may increase openness
ummary and Managerlal lmpllcaLlons ummary and Managerlal lmpllcaLlons
Performance
Typically, clear role perception, appropriate norms, low
status diIIerences and smaller, more cohesive groups lead to
higher perIormance
$atisfaction
Increases with:
· High congruence between boss and employee`s perceptions
about the job
· Not being Iorced to communicate with lower-status employees
· Smaller group size
@ank you @ank you

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