SAMEERA ROLL NO - 26

QUALITY CONTROL IN CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITION OF QUALITY CONTROL
Quality Control (QC) is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed. The QC system is designed to:  (i) Provide routine and consistent checks to ensure data integrity, correctness, and completeness;  (ii) Identify and address errors and omissions;  (iii) Document and archive inventory material and record all QC activities. QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and the use of approved standardized procedures for emission calculations, measurements, estimating uncertainties, archiving information and reporting. Higher tier QC activities include technical reviews of source categories, activity and emission factor data, and methods. Quality Assurance (QA) activities include a planned system of review procedures conducted by personnel not directly involved in the inventory compilation/development process. Reviews, preferably by independent third parties, should be performed upon a finalized inventory following the implementation of QC procedures. Reviews verify that data quality objectives were met, ensure that the inventory represents the best possible estimates of emissions and sinks given the current state of scientific knowledge and data available, and support the effectiveness of the QC programme.

whether it is for business or for personal reasons. Formal Qualifications of Employees 4. Documented Field Inspections 6. The following are six elements should be included in your QA/QC Framework: 1. but he could also ruin existing structures and furnishings as well particularly if the home remodeling job or work is being built around a previous construction. quality of work. product or materials is a very important aspect that will give you the assurance of getting the best results.ELEMENTS OF QUALITY CONTROL It is recommend that every construction company’s quality control Framework should include at least six elements. This could spell irreparable damage or defacement in your home that would not only cause additional cost for the homeowners but it would also cause considerable inconvenience on their part. The only way to avoid such a predicament is to implement good construction quality control before. Massachusetts or somewhere else like Alaska or Hawaii. during and after the home remodeling project. According to custom-building experts a good home builder should take his work as a vocation and would go out of their way or even take the extra mile just to provide excellent and high-quality work and results for their clientele. Quality Organization and Management 2. This is true even on a home renovation or home remodeling project. A bad home builder will not only ruin a perfectly great project concept or idea. . and applying good quality control can help you avoid a bad home builder. Control and Prevention of Nonconformances IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY CONTROL       In any project or endeavor. Formal Qualifications of Subcontractors and Suppliers 5. Documented Standards and Specifications 3. whether your project is located in Boston.

 6. Due to this random nature of the sample selection process. As a result. . so exhaustive testing is not even possible.  5. This is referred to as sampling by attributes. examination and field testing of all the materials of  construction. testing results can vary substantially. Measurement and proportioning of material. Observation of construction equipment. Drawing a direct inference that none or all pieces in the population are defective on the basis of these samples would be incorrect.  3. In many instances. In taking a sample of five pieces. individual craftsmen can perform continuing inspection of materials and their own work.  There are two types of statistical sampling which are commonly used for the purpose of quality control in batches of work or materials:  The acceptance or rejection of a lot is based on the number of defective (bad) or nondefective (good) items in the sample. Examination of layout.  Instead of using defective and nondefective classifications for an item. suppose that there are ten defective pieces of material in a lot of one hundred. etc. Sampling. form work. Without adequate interpretation. non-destructive techniques such as x-ray inspection of welds can be used throughout a facility. Skill levels of labour.  4. An on-site inspector can witness the appropriateness and adequacy of construction methods at all times. As an example. the inspector might not find any defective pieces or might have all sample pieces defective.METHODS OF QUALITY CONTROL Generally quality control begins by inspecting the construction work at different stages like:  1. foundations . a quantitative quality measure or the value of a measured variable is used as a quality indicator. Exhaustive or 100% testing of all materials and work by inspectors can be exceedingly expensive.  2. This testing procedure is referred to as sampling by variables. however. Statistical methods are used to interpret the results of test on a small sample to reach a conclusion concerning the acceptability of an entire lot or batch of materials or work products. small samples are used to establish the basis of accepting or rejecting a particular work item or shipment of materials. It is only with statistical methods that issues such as the chance of different levels of defective items in the full lot can be fully analyzed from a small sample test. Even better. For example. testing requires the destruction of a material sample. small sample testing results can be quite misleading. Testing the specimens in the laboratory. Quality Control by Statistical Methods  An ideal quality control program might test all materials and work on a particular facility.  The use of statistics is essential in interpreting the results of testing on a small sample.

As a result. In many instances. Samples are expected to be chosen randomly so that each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen. the variations in material properties. handling. Drawing a direct inference that none or all pieces in the population are defective on the basis of these samples would be incorrect. Even better. There are two types of statistical sampling which are commonly used for the purpose of quality control in batches of work or materials:  The acceptance or rejection of a lot is based on the number of defective (bad) or nondefective (good) items in the sample. and temperature during setting insure that concrete is actually heterogeneous in quality. As an example. a quantitative quality measure or the value of a measured variable is used as a quality indicator. pouring. . choosing a sample every two hours. Convenient sampling plans such as sampling every twentieth piece. so exhaustive testing is not even possible. Statistical methods are used to interpret the results of test on a small sample to reach a conclusion concerning the acceptability of an entire lot or batch of materials or work products. While a designer may assume that all concrete is exactly the same in a building. Reducing such variations to a minimum is one aspect of quality construction. small samples are used to establish the basis of accepting or rejecting a particular work item or shipment of materials. However. individual craftsmen can perform continuing inspection of materials and their own work. testing results can vary substantially. or picking the top piece on a delivery truck may be adequate to insure a random sample if pieces are randomly mixed in a stack or in use. This is referred to as sampling by attributes. The use of statistics is essential in interpreting the results of testing on a small sample. Due to this random nature of the sample selection process. checking only easily accessible joints in a building component is inappropriate since joints that are hard to reach may be more likely to have erection or fabrication problems.  Whatever sampling plan is used in testing. manufacturing. Without adequate interpretation.  Instead of using defective and nondefective classifications for an item. non-destructive techniques such as x-ray inspection of welds can be used throughout a facility. This testing procedure is referred to as sampling by variables. it is always assumed that the samples are representative of the entire population under consideration. testing requires the destruction of a material sample. It is only with statistical methods that issues such as the chance of different levels of defective items in the full lot can be fully analyzed from a small sample test. some convenient sampling plans can be inappropriate. Another assumption implicit in statistical quality control procedures is that the quality of materials or work is expected to vary from one piece to another. small sample testing results can be quite misleading. Exhaustive or 100% testing of all materials and work by inspectors can be exceedingly expensive. This is certainly true in the field of construction. the inspector might not find any defective pieces or might have all sample pieces defective. For example. Statistical Quality Control with Sampling by Attributes An ideal quality control program might test all materials and work on a particular facility. however. suppose that there are ten defective pieces of material in a lot of one hundred. For example. In taking a sample of five pieces. An on-site inspector can witness the appropriateness and adequacy of construction methods at all times. Insuring that the materials actually placed achieve some minimum quality level with respect to average properties or fraction of defectives is the task of quality control.

An assumption in the procedure is that each item in a batch can be tested and classified as either acceptable or deficient based upon mutually acceptable testing procedures and acceptance criteria. More formally. then the lot is rejected as being likely to be of unacceptable quality. In the literature of statistical quality control. and the two fractions are often equal so that there is no ambiguous range of lot acceptability between p1 and p2. Samples are expected to be chosen randomly so that each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen. Similarly. a lot is defined as unacceptable if it contains a fraction p2 or more defective units. p1 p2. the acceptance fraction is less than or equal to the rejection fraction. we would like to determine the probabilities that acceptable lots might be incorrectly rejected (termed producer's risk) or that deficient lots might be incorrectly accepted (termed consumer's risk). it is always assumed that the samples are representative of the entire population under consideration. then additional sampling may be started rather than immediate rejection of the lot. However. a group of materials or work items to be tested is called a lot or batch. For example. Refinements to this basic application procedure are also possible. Generally. or picking the top piece on a delivery truck may be adequate to insure a random sample if pieces are randomly mixed in a stack or in use. If the number of defective items is greater than a trigger level. if the number of defectives is greater than some pre-defined number. Convenient sampling plans such as sampling every twentieth piece. Given a sample size and a trigger level for lot rejection or acceptance. For example. the lot is accepted. Developing this type of sampling plan requires consideration of probability. choosing a sample every two hours. Each lot is tested to determine if it satisfies a minimum acceptable quality level (AQL) expressed as the maximum percentage of defective items in a lot or process. sampling by attributes is applied by testing a predefined number of sample items from a lot.Whatever sampling plan is used in testing. the mathematical basis for interpreting this type of sampling plan is developed. The procedure is intended to determine whether or not a particular group of materials or work products is acceptable. a lot is defined as acceptable if it contains a fraction p1 or less defective items. Statistical Quality Control with Sampling by Attributes Sampling by attributes is a widely applied quality control method. . In the remainder of this section. In many cases. checking only easily accessible joints in a building component is inappropriate since joints that are hard to reach may be more likely to have erection or fabrication problems. In its basic form. statistics and acceptable risk levels on the part of the supplier and consumer of the lot. some convenient sampling plans can be inappropriate. the trigger level is a single defective item in the sample. Otherwise.

As a result.Statistical Quality Control with Sampling by Variables As described in the previous section. it seems reasonable that some "credit" should be provided for exceptionally good items in a sample. Intuitively. More generally. sampling by attributes is based on a classification of items as good or defective. With the sampling by attributes procedure. Many work and material attributes possess continuous properties. two items classified asgood might have quite different strengths or other attributes. . a particular level of a variable quantity must be defined as acceptable quality. The procedure uses measured values of an attribute in a sample to determine the overall acceptability of a batch or lot. such as strength. Sampling by variables has the advantage of using more information from tests since it is based on actual measured values rather than a simple classification. density or length. Sampling by variables was developed for application to continuously measurable quantities of this type. acceptance sampling by variables can be more efficient than sampling by attributes in the sense that fewer samples are required to obtain a desired level of quality control.

Other benefits include improved access to global markets. This notion encourages each member of the organization to stay focused on quality and remain fully aware of his or her contribution to it and responsibility for it. The process begins by listening to customers' wants and needs and then delivering goods and services that fulfill these desires. TQM even expands the definition of customer to include any person inside or outside the company to whom an employee passes his or her work. increasing customer satisfaction. .  Encourage mutual respect and teamwork. the cooks' customers are the waiters and waitresses. money. firms with the necessary resources may gain major competitive advantages in their industries by implementing TQM. Only a small number of companies use TQM because implementing an effective program involves much time. marketing. less time required to develop new innovations. TQM extends the definition of quality to all functional areas of the organization. In a restaurant. finance. from the highest executive to the lowest-level hourly employee.  Focus on the customer.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Total Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy that says that uniform commitment to quality in all areas of an organization promotes an organizational culture that meets consumers' perceptions of quality. An effective TQM program has numerous benefits. TQM must be supported at all levels of a firm. and the ability to charge higher rather than competitive prices. Organizations shift responsibility for quality control from specialized departments to all employees. higher customer retention levels. Financial benefits include lower costs. To be effective in improving quality. and patience. higher returns on sales and investment. The TQM philosophy focuses on teamwork.  The concept of TQM rests largely on five principles:  Produce quality work the first time. including production. Thus. as well as with customers and suppliers. and information systems. and a reputation as a quality firm.  Have a strategic approach to improvement.  Improve continuously. effort. total quality management means a shift from a bureaucratic to a decentralized approach to control. to identify areas for improvement. However. no matter how small. Teams of workers are trained and empowered to make decisions that help their organization achieve high standards of quality. for example. and lowering costs. Organizations implement TQM by encouraging managers and employees to collaborate across functions and departments.

997-:9088-.70/984:/-0574.06:90 /11070398970398474907..8/0.7.0/:70:80820..70.0 98002870.0450/147.80/43.0  .059..43974 .-06:.8:7.098 -.4393:4:8574507908 8:.907 9.943  8.059.3992:89-0/0130/.4749  $.3..:0841 ..881.250 $.98420 .79.8.844/ 29.8 44/ 47 /010.0399.0/:70 .08.943 8.253- '.-06:.-08. .94394 .80/43..07.5.997-:908574./.70706:70/94 4-9.9.7-0/390570.997-:9085488088 .907..997-:903.9.881.4393:4:820.2508./0870/0.-941.$9.9 4700307.347.9439749$.253-..:087.7..39.399084198 950 %0574.-08. .7.-08 8/08.8810/.843./0/1470...253-.041.253-..3/2.8:70/..253-.910078.253- .943419028..059.-08.":.-09.0416:.-06:.9.8:70/..4:880.3.7.05943..8897039  /038947039 9908.3.20..9:..041 :83247031472.-. 44/90283.997-:9083 90803809...:.94317429089883..8.55.8 ..25094/090723090 4. 94 9028.253- ..3-0 2470011.38.989.708:9  .890..3.7..8250..997-:908  39:9.

943.438:2078 507.7098 07.08  907 -0301983.0203920.0/.83:2074:8-030198 3.9708808 %83494303.81472574.:9..943.9438 .9.47.94388197085438-9147 6:.-994.9.9.059438416:.3.31:.02039 342...4898 07709:738438.9  7.3/ 31472.057.9 .4393:4:8  3.7089.3.8.3 50784338/0474:98/090.:/3574/:.89.3/3.08 088920706:70/94/0.920098.:8942078.0.5574.42292039946:...080.02039 %" 8.3.:894207 709039430.0....8191742.943889028 %0574.14.9 %"2:89-08:554790/.9.4:7.:894207  .0 .0//05.3.247 3.0/0.3/90.:/02574.3/807.0 40.943 2.3:2-0741.02:9:.3/.30110.05941%"70898.994.70077.:7.0397.088.% %"&%% %49.82.98.0/.94357424908.425.70.92.89.920  011479 2430 .6:..3 47.84389.981.8 419047.70.897.70 97.88088 470747 3.30254005.:/0407.94382502039%"- 03.448 .3/7085438-91479 %0%"5484514.04:7 025400 %"0903/890/013943416:.93.3/0254070/942.7090 .9079.90.90590747.70..947901789920  4.3.43.943.08.70850.9172  3..94.80.9439489..943 .3/5.3..0.39442.0839073/:89708- 25020393%" .0.91:19080 /08708 %"0.9.:8084390. /0.7920398 .43974 30110..7041847 07.247 %4-00110.6:..:8942078. 705:9.398 ..:84390.425099.3.3/..30/.3.3/8:55078 94/0391 .9438 .439741742850.903.39.3.308:80 %"-0.06:.7 7084:7.3.3/903/0.4397-:943949.9.943 .548459.3/.347.943 3.0%"5747.3/025400894.078.9  %0.088944-.:894207 8.70431.32..088-038-8903394.9907482.1:3.70.082:.082.0573.4898  7.04530334.0305.90.094904089 0.9:31472 .7/8416:.3/702. %0.07 172899030.792039894.9.2.0.-:70.:/0.3//05.38.83.:894207943.0892039  .089.74881:3.3/300/8.":.9078.-47..425.4:7.3.2.425099.089.3/890/01394341.:9:709.3.250 90.:.4.172 17429008900.4:7. -0301983..0841.942574./.0254008 %:8  949.07344/8.36:.5574.284147078.:80/436:..9.7093 13.05747.02039  2574.32.3/90.:8942078 .032574.23.3.202-074190 47.39 1470.508  !74/:.841.4.:8025020393.7..94.3/4073.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful