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System Architecture

GSM operation
Frequency Resources Access Technologies Handoff Numbering arrangements

Early 1980s there were analog technologies: Advanced Mobile Phone Services(AMPS)in North America. Total Access Communications System(TACS) in the UK. Nordic Mobile Telephone(NMT) in Nordic countries. Each country developed its own system which caused problems: System worked only within the boundaries of each country. Mobile equipment manufacturers markets were limited by the operating system.

Solution was GSM, which is digital technology and was developed by CEPT(Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications). The Goals of GSM: High speech quality Low-cost mobile sets and base stations Support for international roaming one system for all of Europe Support for range of new services and facilities Compatibility with ISDN and other telephone company services. Enhance privacy Security against fraud

System Architecture

System Architecture Mobile Station (MS)

The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Mobile Equipment: Produced by many different manufacturers Must obtain approval from the standardization body Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Mobiles transmit and receive voice at 13 kbps over air interface

System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) contd.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Smart card containing the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI),serial number ,subscriber key(ki) SIM features and contents are personalized by the service activator Protected by a password or PIN MS also stores some temporary data on SIM during operation

System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Base Station Controller (BSC)

System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) contd.

Base Transceiver Station (BTS): Houses the radio transceivers that define a cell Transmits and receives voice at 13 kbps to the mobiles Commands mobiles to set Tx power and handovers

System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) contd.

Base Station Controller (BSC) Several BTS are connected to one BSC BSC manages channel allocation , handovers and release of channels at connected BTSs BSC Connects to each BTS on an Abis interface and to the MSC on A interface BSC has the entire database for all cell parameters associated with the BTSs

System Architecture Network Subsystem

Mobile Switching Center (MSC): Exchange where calls are established , maintained and released It contains Database for all subscribers and there associated features Communicates with BSCs on MS side and with PSTN on fixed line side Three main jobs: 1) connects calls from sender to receiver 2) collects details of the calls made and received 3) supervises operation of the rest of the network components

System Architecture Network Subsystem contd.

Home Location Registers (HLR) MSC has all subscribers database stored in HLR HLR has all permanent subscribers database MSC communicates with HLR to get the data for subscriber on call HLR will have the series of all subscriber numbers which may not be activated or issued

System Architecture Network Subsystem contd.

Visitor Location Registers (VLR) A subscription when activated is registered in VLR VLR has all the subscriber number which are activated MSC communicates with HLR for subscribers coming from different MSCs and if found valid then register them in its VLR

TRAU-transcoder/rate adaption unit TRAU converts the data rates between 13kbps GSM rate to 64kbps standard ISDN(integrated service digital network) rate and vice versa TRAU can be allocated with the BTS,BSC or MSC or it can be a separate unit.

System Architecture Network Subsystem contd.

Authentication Center (AUC) Authentication is a process by which a SIM is verified Secret data and the verification process algorithm are stored at AUC AUC is the element which carries out the verification of SIM Associated with HLR
Equipment Identity Register (EIR) EIR is the Mobile Equipment Database which has a series of IMEIs MSC ask the mobile to send its IMEI MSC then check the validity of IMEI with the EIR All IMEI are stored in EIR with relevant classification : white list , black list , grey list

Speech Speech

Speech coding

Speech decoding

13 Kbps
Channel Coding 22.8 Kbps Interleaving 22.8 Kbps Ciphering (Encryption) De-ciphering De-interleaving Channel decoding

33.6 Kbps Radio Modulation (GMSK) 270.83 Kbps



Frequency Resource

GSM900 : uplink: 890~915MHz downlink: 935~960MHz duplex interval: 45MHz Bandwidth of uplink and downlink: 25MHz 1 channel carrier frequency: 200KHz 124 channels(of 200 KHz each) 1 gaurdband of 200KHz

Access Technologies

In FDMA, we assume that a base station can receive radio signals in a given band of spectrum, i.e., a range of continuous frequency values. The band of frequency is broken up into smaller bands, i.e., subbands. Each transmitter (user) transmits to the base station using radio waves in its own subband.

FDMA (Contd)
A sub band is also a range of continuous frequencies, e.g., 824 MHz to 824.1 MHz. The width of this subband is 0.1 MHz = 100 KHz.
When a users is assigned a subband, it transmits to the base station using a sine wave with the center frequency in that band, e.g., 824.05 MHz. When the base station is tuned to the frequency of a desired user, it receives no portion of the signal transmitted by another in-cell user (using a different frequency). This way, the multiple local transmitters within a cell do not interfere with each other.

In pure TDMA, base station does not split up its allotted frequency band into smaller frequency subbands. Rather it communicates with the users one-at-atime, i.e., round robin access.

When a mobile moves into a different cell while a conversation is in progress, the MSC automatically transfers the call to a new channel belonging to the new base station. Handoff operation identifying a new base station re-allocating the voice and control channels with the new base station. Handoff Threshold Minimum usable signal for acceptable voice quality (-90dBm to -100dBm) handoff margin Pr,handoff Pr,minimum usable Handoff margin cannot be too large or too small. If is too large, unnecessary handoffs burden the MSC If is too small, there may be insufficient time to complete handoff before a call is lost.

A Handoff
Suppose a user is transmitting and receiving signals from a given base station, say B1. Assume the user moves from the coverage area of one base station into the coverage area of a second base station, B2. B1 notices that the signal from this user is degrading. B2 notices that the signal from this user is improving

A Handoff
At some point, the users signal is weak enough at B1 and strong enough at B2 for a handoff to occur. Specifically, messages are exchanged between the user, B1, and B2 so that communication to/from the user is transferred from B1 to B2.

Numbering Arrangement
International mobile equipment identity(IMEI)

It will uniquely identify a mobile station. It is a decimal number of 15 digits. Its structure is: TAC+FAC+SNR+SP

TAC=model ratification code, 6 digits FAC=factory assembling code, 2 digits SNR=sequence code, 6 digits SP=reserved, 1 digit

Numbering Arrangement
International Mobile Subscriber Identification number (IMSI)

It identifies a unique international universal number of a mobile subscriber, which consists of MCC+MNC+MSIN.(15 digits) 1) MCC: country code, 404(3 digits) 2MNC: network code, 00 or 01(2 digits) 3MSIN: subscriber identification (10 digits) the IMSI of user will be written into the SIM card by specific device and software and be stored into the HLR with other user information.

Numbering Arrangement
Mobile Subscriber ISDN NumberMSISDN

It is the subscriber number commonly used. CC+NDC+ SN CC: country code, NDC: network code, SN: subscriber number