MALNUTRITION

Definition:
Malnutrition (literally “bad nutrition”) is a disparity between the amount of food and other nutrients that the body needs and the amount that it is receiving. This imbalance is most frequently associated with undernutrition, but it may also be due to overnutrition.

Malnutrition can occur if you do not eat enough food. Starvation is a form of malnutrition.
You may develop malnutrition if you lack of a single vitamin in the diet. In some cases, malnutrition is very mild and causes no symptoms. However, sometimes it can be so severe that the damage done to the body is permanent, even though you survive.

and not just in developing countries.even epidemics -.of malnutrition and starvation. especially among children. natural disasters. political problems.Malnutrition continues to be a significant problem all over the world. . Poverty. and war all contribute to conditions -.

the most insidious. estimates the size of this group at roughly 1. However. is mainly a deficiency of calories and protein. The W. thus deepening the poverty cycle since they have less access to education and opportunities for work later in life. making their lives even more difficult. impeding their productivity and creating a host of associated health problems.Several Primary Causes: Hunger. hunger also seriously affects adults. . since it can affect their mental and physical development for the rest of their lives. The main cause of hunger is poverty.O. Hunger is most devastating when it attacks children.H.2 billion people. The terrible effects and legacy of HIV/AIDS are also tightly linked to hunger and malnutrition.

Micronutrient and/or protein deficiency is shown in a very large group of malnourished people. The worldwide size of this group is estimated at 2 billion people. or they can take years to manifest themselves. They either do not receive adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals (micronutrients). The health symptoms may not be immediately visible to either the individuals themselves or to health workers. and a great increase in health care costs which negatively affects other government attempts to improve the quality of life . The result is lost productivity. This can also have very debilitating effects on people and societies. or the correct proportion of protein in their diets. .aside from the enormous social cost.

The health care costs.Over-consumption. . are a fastgrowing segment of the world's population. these people.O. such as in India and China. as the middle and upper class. Compounded with their reduced physical activity and greater meat consumption. Ironically they often live. The W. is often accompanied by a deficiency in vitamins and minerals. the overweight and obese. estimates this group to be 1. Many food companies sometimes exploit the human inclination towards fatty and sugary foods by offering consumers cheap and often nutritionally empty products.2 billion people worldwide. in those countries where hunger is prevalent.H. taking in many more calories than required. missed productivity and environmental costs associated with this group are huge.

is malnutrition.4 billion people.The common thread that affects all of these groups. . 4.

some patients with mental health conditions.In more wealthy industrialized nations malnutrition is usually caused by: Poor diet . they suffer from malnutrition. If the patient develops dysphagia (swallowing difficulties) because of an illness. Poor diet may be caused by one of several different factors.if a person does not eat enough food. they may not be able to consume enough of the right nutrients.people with mobility problems may suffer from malnutrition. or if what they eat does not provide them with the nutrients they require for good health. such as depression. . or find preparing them too arduous. or when recovering from an illness. Mobility problems . Patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia may develop malnutrition because they are ingesting too little food. may develop eating habits which lead to malnutrition. Mental health problems . simply because they either cannot get out enough to buy foods.

Examples include patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. but their bodies cannot absorb the nutrients they need for good health. Individuals who suffer from Celiac disease have a genetic disorder that makes them intolerant to gluten. Patients with Celiac disease have a higher risk of damage to the lining of their intestines. . Patients who experience serious bouts of diarrhea and/or vomiting may lose vital nutrients and are at higher risk of suffering from malnutrition.Digestive disorders and stomach conditions some people may eat properly. resulting in poorer food absorption. Such patients may need to have part of the small intestine removed (ileostomy).

Individuals who suffer from alcoholism can develop gastritis. and produce hormones which regulate metabolism. absorb certain vitamins. Alcohol contains calories. . so he/she consequently may not eat enough proper food to supply the body with essential nutrients.the body is dependent on alcohol. Alcoholism is a chronic (long-term) disease.an alcoholic is a person who suffers from alcoholism . or pancreas damage.Alcoholism . reducing the patient's feeling of hunger. These problems also seriously undermine the body's ability to digest food.

Some leading economists say that famine is closely linked to high food prices and problems with food distribution.it is ironic that approximately 80% of malnourished children live in developing nations that actually produce food surpluses (Food and Agriculture Organization). Food prices and food distribution . such as nitrogen fertilizers. pesticides and irrigation. .in poorer developing nations food shortages are mainly caused by a lack of technology needed for higher yields found in modern agriculture. developing commonly caused by: nations malnutrition is Food shortages .In poorer. Food shortages are a significant cause of malnutrition in many parts of the world.

leads to malnutrition in infants and children. mainly in the developing world. is that mothers abandon it because they do not know how to get their baby to latch on properly.experts say that lack of breastfeeding. or suffer pain and discomfort. In some parts of the world mothers still believe that bottle feeding is better for the child.Lack of breastfeeding . especially in the developing world. . Another reason for lack of breastfeeding.

the immune system is weakened. a higher risk of respiratory failure Depression Higher risk of complications after surgery Higher risk of hypothermia . Higher susceptibility to feeling cold Longer healing times for wounds . consequently.abnormally low body temperature The total number of some types of white blood cells falls.What are some signs and symptoms of malnutrition? Loss of fat (adipose tissue) Breathing difficulties. increasing the risk of infections.

Longer recover times from infections Longer recovery from illnesses Lower sex drive Problems with fertility Reduced muscle mass Reduced tissue mass Tiredness. fatigue. or apathy Irritability .

severe malnutrition may lead to unresponsiveness (stupor) If calorie deficiency continues for long enough. the cheeks look hollow and the eyes sunken Hair becomes dry and sparse. dry.In more severe cases: Skin may become thin. pale. liver and respiratory failure Total starvation is said to be fatal within 8 to 12 weeks (no calorie consumption at all) . falling out easily Sometimes. inelastic. there may be heart. as fat in the face is lost. and cold Eventually.

Marasmus Marasmus is one component of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). . The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that deaths attributable to marasmus approach 50 percent of the more than ten million deaths of children under age five with PEM. It is a severe form of malnutrition caused by inadequate intake of protein and calories . Marasmus accounts for a large burden on global health. resulting in wasting and growth retardation. and it usually occurs in the first year of life.

bones prominent Wrinkled and dry skin.Signs of Marasmus: Very thin body. especially in the buttocks and arms Hair is thin and soft Face like an old man's Cries often .

.A child suffering from Marasmus.

therefore. and absorption. or societal unrest leads to an inadequate food supply. infections and other disease states negatively impact nutrient intake. was first defined in the 1930s in Ghana. Proteindepleted diets in such areas are mostly based on starches and vegetables. meaning "the disease of the displaced child" in the language of Ga. A lack of maternal understanding regarding balanced diets further contributes to the problem.Kwashiorkor The term kwashiorkor . . a macronutrient deficiency. digestion. Finally. Generally. Kwashiorkor is one of the more severe forms of protein malnutrition and is caused by inadequate protein intake. with little meat and animal products. famine . It is. kwashiorkor occurs when drought.

Signs of Kwashiorkor: Legs and hands are swollen with water (edema) Skin has dark brown to black patches which can be peeled off Hair is thin and can easily be pulled out Face is flabby or moon-faced Sad. does not smile Belly is enlarged Very slow learner .

A child suffering from Kwashiorkor. .Difference between a normal and a child suffering from Kwashiorkor.

Marasmus affects infants and very young kids. Marasmus affects kids because of a lack of nutritional elements in the diet. Kwashiorkor affects kids who do not receive enough protein in the diet. Kwashiorkor patients are characterized by a distended stomach.Difference between Marasmus and Kwashiorkor: Marasmus patients suffer from a peeling and alternately pigmented skin. Marasmus patients need to be treated with additional doses of vitamin B and a nutritious diet. burns on the skin and diarrhea. Kwashiorkor affects kids who are a bit older. . Kwashiorkor patients are treated by adding more protein in their diet.

Consider this as an emergency. Start supplementary feeding when the baby is 4 months. bring the child to the nearest health center. Avoid delay of treatment. treatment and nutrition rehabilitation must be continued at home.Treatment: Breast-feed the baby 1 to 2 hours after delivery. Treat the existing infection or illness and prevent its recurrence. For severe cases. After emergency condition is controlled. Prepare nutritious and appetizing food. The child usually has diarrhea or lung infection. Continue breastfeeding as long as the mother has milk. Do not use condensed milk as breast milk substitute. or clinic. . hospital.

Do not force him or her to eat. . soft drinks. Minimize giving junk foods.“ Encourage the child to have regular meals. Provide a warm. touch. loving environment.If a child has no appetite. see. taste. Snacks should be given 2 hours before meals. Provide stimulating materials to hear. and smell. and artificially colored or flavored snack food with "empty calories. Seek help and support of community leaders. encourage small but frequent feedings.

Prevention is better than cure… Preventing malnutrition: Malnutrition is caused mainly by not consuming "the right balance of nutrients from major food groups". These include: Carbohydrates Fruit and vegetables Protein Dairy .vegans are able to find abundant nutrients from non-animal sources Fats .

2 liters of fluid a day. .The average human should drink at least 1.

Eating a good. well-balanced diet helps to prevent most forms of malnutrition. .

But still… …not all person can afford to have proper nutrition. .

Pulitzer Prize-winning photo of a Sudanese girl suffering from malnutrition as a vulture patiently awaits her demise. .

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