KM 20 Years Later | Knowledge Economy | Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management 20 years

after ... The evolution and increasing significance of Knowledge Management
2004

Knowledge Research Institute, Inc.
Arlington, TX 76016-3517 phone: (817) 572-6254 fax: (817) 478-1048 e-mail: kmwiig@krii.com –– website: www.krii.com
KM Past & Future 2004/ 1 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute, Inc.

Karl M. Wiig

KM’s Role Is Changing
 The Early Focus: Strengthen Operations by Improving Knowledge and Its Availability  The Emerging Focus: Make the Enterprise More Competitive from Strategic Perspectives “To Survive and Prosper You Need to

Innovate Faster Than Your Competitors
– It is Not Enough to Learn Faster!”
KM Past & Future 2004/ 2 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute, Inc.

KM – The Stage Is Set  WWII changed the World economy  War ravaged nations built new. efficient industrial capabilities  Global competition shifted to higher quality and lower prices  Knowledge content increased in complex products and services  Computers began to provide “Knowledge Amplifiers” 1950s Deming & Durant: Quality requires knowledge and understanding 1956 Kenneth Boulding: “The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society” 1966 Peter Drucker: Knowledge Worker in “The Effective Executive” 1966 Kenneth Boulding: “The Economics of Knowledge and the Knowledge of Economics” 1969 Peter Drucker: 1970s AI Promises: 1978 Peter Keen: KM Past & Future 2004/ 3 Knowledge Worker in “The Age of Discontinuity” Expert Systems to automate knowledge processes “Decision Support Systems: An Organizational Perspective” Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Inc. .

Little 1986 Böhme & Stehr: 1987 Sveiby & Lloyd: 1990 Senge 1991 Thomas Stewart: 1993 Prusak & alia: 1993 Wiig KM Past & Future 2004/ 4 Personal Computer for business Knowledge-Based System Applications “Knowledge Management and Applied AI” “The Knowledge Society” “Managing Knowhow” “The Fifth Discipline” (Learning Organization) “Brainpower” article in Fortune Boston KM Conference (150 participants) “Knowledge Management Foundations” Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Inc. etc.KM – The Early Days – 1980s+  AI. ADL.based Expert Systems  Knowledge Sharing  Beginning Focus on Intellectual Capital 1980s IBM & Others 1981 DEC. . 1985 Arthur D.

.htm> KM Past & Future 2004/ 5 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Onge Sveiby Skandia/Edvinsson Stewart Value Creation Teece Sullivan Petrash ICM Gathering Lev Value Extraction 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 From <http://www.sveiby.com/articles/icmmovement. Inc.Intellectual Capital Management (ICM) Hall St.

Inc. procedures for work. see implications. learn. and complex situations  People learn / remember stories and concepts better than facts  Expertise is a tacit and abstract personal capability to innovate.The Field Is Dynamic! We continue to learn about people and knowledge with profound consequences for KM  Successful KM requires understanding of underlying knowledge-related mechanisms in people and organizations  Much more than realized. blend mental models. dynamic episodes. . decisions are made by tacit activation of mental reference models  Mental models are often encoded stories of static scenes. and to act KM Past & Future 2004/ 6 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

Situation Handling Requires Knowledge Knowledge Mental Reference Models – Concepts – Understandings – Judgments – Principles – Facts Sensemaking Infor mati on Decision-Making/ Problem-Solving Unde rst andi ng of Si tua ti on Implementation Dec isi on Effe cti ve Actio n Initial Situation Situational Awareness Cor recti ve Adj ust ment Action Space and Innovation Monitoring Execution Capability Cor recti ve Adj ust ment Feedback Act ion s to Ch ange Si tua ti on Feedback Feedback Act ion s to Ch ange Si tua ti on Governance Competence New Infor mati on New Infor mati on New Infor mati on Ongoing Situation KM Past & Future 2004/ 7 Copyright 2003 Knowledge Research Institute. . Copyright ©© 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Inc. Inc.

Inc. KM Past & Future 2004/ 8 .KM – Its Basic Nature KM Ideally. KM governs knowledge-related activities and processes in all parts of society to:  Improve effectiveness of personal actions – at work and at home  Strengthen enterprise behavior to:   Increase value to customers Provide strong competitive position  Improve stakeholder relations  Capability to be responsible societal citizen Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

. Inc.Effective Actions Are Needed at All Levels KM Past & Future 2004/ 9 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

An Important Change Within the Knowledge-Vigilant enterprise most people possess an “Asset Management Mentality” to create. Inc. and utilize Intangible Capital to be as effective as possible in all their pursuits KM is cornerstone of Integral Management KM Past & Future 2004/ 10 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. exchange. . maintain.

.Remember – KM Covers Five Domains! CONTEXT Business Purpose & Environment of Enterpris e KM UNDERLYING MECHANISMS Associated Disciplines Cognitive. Inc. "What We DO" Knowledge Management Activities & Actions (KM Work ) ORGANIZING PRINCIPLES "Meta KM" RESOURCES "1001" Choices of KM Methods. Te chnical... . People & Technologies KM Past & Future 2004/ 11 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

Knowledge Management Counts! Progress and viability are driven by human capital Most studies have been inconclusive . .5 % increase in GDP Source: International Adult Literacy Survey: Literacy scores. and Sylvie Marchand .5 % personal productivity increase  1. human capital and growth across fourteen OECD countries Serge Coulombe. However. Jean-François Tremblay.Statistics Canada . long-term effects of improved knowledge indicate:  1 % literacy score increase leads to  2. . Inc. .Human Resources and Skills Development KM Past & Future 2004/ 12 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

KM often pursue separate and disjointed efforts like:  KM/IT Applications  Learning Organization  Intellectual Capital Management  Advanced enterprises pursue KM as part of Integrative Management KM Past & Future 2004/ 13 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.Few Are Knowledge Vigilant! Qualitative Estimates  Within the enterprise. Inc. .

. Inc.KM – Its Significance  Personal: Improved earnings potentials More effective personal decision making Raised quality of life  Industrial: Greater competitive effectiveness Better products and services Beneficial for customers and consumers  Societal: Increased progress from better educated citizenry Improved social and economic environments More desirable society KM Past & Future 2004/ 14 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

. Inc.KM Scope Shifts to Wider Focus Relative Frequency Knowledge Scope Qualitative Estimates KM Past & Future 2004/ 15 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

KM – Its Real Significance Being Informed IS NOT Being Knowledgeable! KM provides opportunities for people and organizations to make more effective and knowledgeable decisions You must be knowledgeable to see the implications of situations described by information Success in today’s global society requires being Knowledgeable and Informed – Both! KM Past & Future 2004/ 16 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. . Inc.

" KM Past & Future 2004/ 17 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. Inc. .KM – Societal Significance Strategic goal for 2010 set for Europe at the Lisbon European Council – March 2000: "to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world.

2004 Knowledge Management Is the Innovation Enabler by Providing the Driving Intellectual Capital Resources! KM Past & Future 2004/ 18 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Inc. . But This Approach Will Ultimately Render Them Obsolete. FT Sep 17. Only the Constant Pursuit of Innovation Can Ensure Long-Term Success.KM and Innovation Are Key “A Focus on Cost-Cutting and Efficiency Has Helped Many Organizations Weather the Downturn.” DF Muzyka.

Extra Slides Added for Reference KM Past & Future 2004/ 19 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Inc. .

Our Work Is Becoming More Complex KM Past & Future 2004/ 20 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. . Inc.

Inc.Small Actions Lead to Broad Behavior Innumerable Nano Actions R&D-Marketing Micro "Action" Effects of Actions Micro "Action" Effects of Actions Costs Service Quality Product Quality Customer Support etc. . Realized Performance Engineering Micro "Action" Consolidated Enterprise Behavior Market and Stake holder Response Manufacturing Micro "Action" Delivery & Start-Up KM Past & Future 2004/ 21 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.

Inc.Most Decisions Are Nonconscious and Result from Activating Mental Reference Models! Situation Facts-Objectives Options for decision and innovation Representation of future outcomes Reasoning Strategies Decision Reference Model Library Personal Mental Models of Wellknown Cases KM Past & Future 2004/ 22 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. .

.Some Inter-Domain Functions Gui de T cal & acti Strategic Di re ctions Busi ness Context Shapes Whi ch & How Underl yi ng Mechani sms Are Activated CONTEXT Business Purpose & Environment of Enterprise KM Provi de Understandi ng for KM Gove rnance Presents Needs for O rgani zi ng Pri ncipl es Provi de Understandi ng of Rel ati ons between O ther En ti ti es & Mech ani sms Provi de Informati on on Mechani sms Provi des Busi ness Val ue by Effecti ve KM Practice s Determi nes KM Di recti on from Busi ness Requiremen ts UNDERLYING MECHANISMS Associated Disciplines Cognitive. Determi ne KM Impl ementati on O ptions Methods & Acti on s Acti vate Mech ani sms "What We DO" Knowledge Management Activities & Action s (KM Work ) Provi de Understandi ng for Effe ctive KM Work Presents Needs for O rgani zi ng Pri ncipl es ORGANIZING PRINCIPLES "Meta KM" Presents Needs to Create New Sol uti ons & Methods Provi de Appl i cabl e Methods & O th er Res ource s Provi de Informati on on New Mechani sms Underl yi ng Mechani sms Shape Methodologi es RESOURCES "1001" Choices of KM Methods. People & Technologies Present Needs for O rgani zi ng Pri ncipl es Provi de Understandi ng for Cre ating Re sou rce s KM Past & Future 2004/ 23 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Te chnical.. . Inc. .

No." J ournal of the KMC I. V ol. .Examples of KM Domain Areas Examples Enterprise Work Environment ¥ Products & Services ¥ Inf rastructure ¥ Cu lture & Practices Examples Stak eholders ¥ Objectives ¥ Requirements Mark ets & Customers ¥ Competitive Situation ¥ Customer Requirements ¥ Econ omy Axiomatic Basis ¥ Systems Perspective ¥ Holistic Natu ral History Examples Behavioral Systems ¥ Learning ¥ Decision Making ¥ Innovative Behavior ¥ Constraints ¥ Strategy & Direction ¥ Structure ¥ Financial Situation ¥ TOWS CONTEXT Business Purpose & Environment of Enterprise KM Axiological.. "Me ta -KM: A P rogr a m and a P lea .. People & Technologies KM Professional Education ¥ Practical KM Work ¥ KM-Related Theory ¥ Bu siness S cien ce (OR) Knowledge Systems Design for Holistic Social Development (Political KM Processes) ¥ Theory of Holistic Social Development ¥ Endogenous Growth Theory ¥ Th eory of (S ocial) Human Cap ital KM Capabilities Develoment ¥ KM Methods ¥ KM "Systems" ¥ KM Practices Manage ment ¥ Knowledge-Leveraging Mentality ¥ Managing f rom Knowled ge Perspectives AI & Advanced IT Applications ¥ Active KM Capabil ities ¥ Passive KM Support (In frastructu re) Knowledge Systems Design for Organizational KM Processe s ¥ Value-Based KM Strategy ¥ (Organizational) Human Capital Developm ¥ Instrumental Capital Development Ada pted fr om F. Te chnical.J .C ar r illo. . Epistemological Foundations ¥ Integrated Value Theory ¥ Natural Philosophy of Knowledge ¥ Measurement Th eory Motivational Systems ¥ Understanding Benef its of Supporting Enterprise ¥ Enterprise Incentives. Examples KM Past & Future 2004/ 24 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. 1. National & Local Economies ¥ Market Mech anisms Physical & Technical Systems ¥ Production Facilities ¥ Transp or tation Systems ¥ Informatics Systems RESOURCES "1001" Choices of KM Methods. Inc. "What We DO" Knowledge Management Activities & Action s (KM Work ) ORGANIZING PRINCIPLES "Meta KM" Knowledge Governance Structural Foundations of Knowledge Sys tems ¥ Economy & Culture of Knowledge ¥ Knowledge-Based Value Systems ¥ Systems of Capital Economic Systems ¥ Global. 2 . Theoretical. Practices & Cu lture Sciences of Knowle dge ¥ Biology of Knowledge ¥ Psychology of Knowledge ¥ Economy of Knowledge ¥ Sociology of Knowledge ¥ Semiotics ¥ Computation Theory & AI ¥ Anthropology of Knowledge ¥ History of Knowledge Social Systems ¥ Societies ¥ Governments ¥ Enterprises ¥ Family Units UNDERLYING MECHANISMS Associated Disciplines Cognitive. J an 20 01 .

Operations. Operations. Operations. Operations. Practices. and Strategies Understanding the Applicability of Different Knowledge-Related Initiatives and Solutions Understanding Business Processes. and Strategies Understanding Diagnostics Methodologies Understanding the Nature of Intellectual Work under Varying Conditions Knowledge Diagnostics Understanding the Applicability of Different Knowledge-Related Initiatives and Solutions Understanding Business Processes. Practices. and Strategies KM Past & Future 2004/ 25 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute.Knowledge-Based Business Diagnostics Understanding Diagnostics Methodologies Understanding the Nature of Intellectual Work under Varying Conditions Knowledge Diagnostics Understanding Diagnostics Methodologies Understanding the Nature of Intellectual Work under Varying Conditions Knowledge Diagnostics Understanding the Applicability of Different Knowledge-Related Initiatives and Solutions Understanding Business Processes. Inc. Practices. Practices. . and Strategies Understanding Diagnostics Methodologies Understanding the Nature of Intellectual Work under Varying Conditions Knowledge Diagnostics Understanding the Applicability of Different Knowledge-Related Initiatives and Solutions Understanding Business Processes.

Maybe – Just Maybe – We Need to Understand Financial Times March 6 2004 KM Past & Future 2004/ 26 Copyright © 2004 Knowledge Research Institute. Inc. .

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