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Marketing Mix

Promotions

Promotion
how the customer is found and persuaded to buy the product.

Promotional Mix
Advertising Public Relations

Promotional Mix

Sales Promotion Personal Selling

A successful product or service means nothing unless the benefit of such a service can be communicated clearly to the target market. An organisations promotional mix can consist of:

Direct Mail
Internet/ E-commerce

Push strategy
Involves promoting a product to middlemen, such as wholesalers and retailers, who then promote the product to consumers. Is used when businesses are the target of sales promotions so that products may be through the channel to final consumers. For example, a manufacturer may provide incentives such as price discounts to the retailer who then promotes or pushes the product to the final consumer. "Taking the product to the customer"

Pull Strategy
Involves promoting a product to final consumers. For example, a manufacturer promotes its new product on television to consumers and places coupons in the newspaper inserts to get the consumers demanding the product. Companies use a pull strategy when they target consumers with promotions. In other words, a company promotes it products and services to the final consumer to a consumer to the stores or get the consumer asking for the product.

"Getting the customer to come to you"

Modes of Marketing Communications


Advertisingany paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor Sales promotionshort-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or services Events and experiences sponsored activities and programs design to create daily or special brand-related interactions Public relations and publicity promotion or protect a companys image or its individual products
Direct marketinguse of mail, telephone, fax, e-mail, or Internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects Interactive marketingonline activities and programs designed to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly to raise awareness, improve image, or elicit sales of products and services Word-of-mouth marketing people-to-people oral, written, or electronic communications that relate to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or service Personal sellingface-to-face interaction with one or more prospective purchases for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders

Communication Platforms
Advertising Print and broadcast ads Packaging inserts Motion pictures Brochures and booklets Posters Billboards POP displays Logos Videotapes Sales Promotion Contests, games, sweepstakes Premiums Sampling Trade shows, exhibits Coupons Rebates Entertainment Continuity programs
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Communication Platforms
Events/ Experiences
Sports Entertainment Festivals Art Causes Factory tours Company museums Street activities

Public Relations
Press kits Speeches Seminars Annual reports Charitable donations Publications Community relations Lobbying Identity media Company magazine
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Communication Platforms
Personal Selling
Sales presentations Sales meetings Incentive programs Samples Fairs and trade shows

Direct Marketing
Catalogs Mailings Telemarketing Electronic shopping TV shopping Fax mail E-mail Voice mail Blogs Websites
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Characteristics of the Marketing Communications Mix


Advertising Pervasiveness Amplified expressiveness Impersonality Sales Promotion Communication Incentive Invitation

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Characteristics of the Marketing Communications Mix


Public Relations and Publicity High credibility Ability to catch buyers off guard Dramatization Events and Experiences Relevant Involving Implicit

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Characteristics of the Marketing Communications Mix


Direct Marketing Customized Up-to-date Interactive Personal Selling Personal interaction Cultivation Response

Word-of-Mouth Marketing Credible Personal Timely


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Advantages and Disadvantages


Mix Element Advantages
Good for building awareness Effective at reaching a wide audience Repetition of main brand and product positioning helps build customer trust Highly interactive - lots of communication between the buyer and seller Excellent for communicating complex / detailed product information and features Relationships can be built up - important if closing the sale make take a long time

Disadvantages
Impersonal - cannot answer all a customer's questions Not good at getting customers to make a final purchasing decision

Advertising

Personal Selling

Costly - employing a sales force has many hidden costs in addition to wages Not suitable if there are thousands of important buyers

Advantages and Disadvantages


Can stimulate quick increases in sales by targeting promotional incentives on particular products Good short term tactical tool Often seen as more "credible" - since the message seems to be coming from a third party (e.g. magazine, newspaper) Cheap way of reaching many customers - if the publicity is achieved through the right media If used over the longterm, customers may get used to the effect Too much promotion may damage the brand image

Sales Promotion

Public Relations

Risk of losing control cannot always control what other people write or say about your product