Uses of ethical theories

Utilitarianism

Duty Ethics

Ethical Theories

Rawls’ principles

Rights ethics

Utilitarian Theory
• the standard of right conduct is maximization of good consequences • ACT UTILITARIAN theory • focuses on actions, rather than on general rules. An action is right, if it generates the most overall good for the most people involved • RULE UTILITARIAN theory • individual actions are right when they are required by set of rules which maximizes the public good.

Duty Ethics (proposed by Immanuel Kant)
• actions are consequences of performance of one‟s duties such as, „being honest‟, „not cause suffering of others‟, „being fair to others including the meek and week‟, „being grateful‟, „keeping promises • Rawl’s Principles • (1) each person is entitled to the most extensive amount of liberty compatible with an equal amount for others, • (2) differences in social power and economic benefits are justified only when they are likely to benefit every one, including members of the most disadvantaged groups

Rights theory
• The right to access the truth

• The right of privacy
• The right not to be injured • The right to what is agreed

Uses of Ethical Theories
• In understanding moral dilemma

• In Justifying professional obligations and decisions

• In relating ordinary and professional morality

Resolving moral dilemmas
• Ethical theories aid in identifying the moral considerations that constitute a dilemma

• Ethical theories provide a more precise sense of what kinds of information are relevant to solving moral dilemmas • To rank the relevant moral considerations in order of importance thereby provide guidance in solving moral problems
 Provides a framework for moral reasoning

Justifying Moral obligations

Relating Professional and Ordinary morality
View 1

View 4

Interpersonal Communication

View 2

View 3

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–8

Relating Professional and Ordinary morality • View 1  engineers acquire moral obligations concerning safety through laws or enforced codes. • View 2  engineers acquire special obligations by joining special society and agreeing to live by that society‟s code of ethics. • View 3  through contractual agreements • View 4  vow to protect and safeguard the public

Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications

• Use Feedback • Simplify Language • Listen Actively • Constrain Emotions • Watch Nonverbal Cues

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–10

Exhibit 11–3 Active Listening Behaviors

Source: Based on P.L. Hunsaker, Training in Management Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001).

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–11

Communication Flows

U p w a r d

Lateral

D o w n w a r d

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–12

Exhibit 11–4 Three Common Organizational Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–13

The Grapevine
• An informal organizational communication network that is active in almost every organization.
 Provides a channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels.  The impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–14

Current Communication Issues (cont’d)
• Managing the Organization‟s Knowledge Resources
 Build online information databases that employees can access.  Create “communities of practice” for groups of people who share a concern, share expertise, and interact with each other.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–15

“Politically Correct” Communication
• Do not use words or phrases that stereotype, intimidate, or offend individuals based on their differences. • However, choose words carefully to maintain as much clarity as possible in communications.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11–16