Introduction to Telephony

1

Agenda
• Basic Analog Telephony • Basic Digital Telephony • Consolidated Transport Networking

2

Telephony Equipment
• Telephone set

• Key system
– Optimizes use of telephone sets to lines – Mechanical to electronic – 2 to 10+ sets typically

• PBX (Private Branch Exchange)
– Advanced features and call routing – 10s to 100s of telephone sets

• Central office switch

3

Analog Telephony—POTS Basics Tip Ring Sleeve 4 .

Basic Call Progress: On-Hook Telephone Switch Local Loop Local Loop -48 DC Voltage DC Open Circuit No Current Flow 5 .

Basic Call Progress: Off-Hook Off-Hook Closed Circuit DC Current Dial Tone Local Loop Local Loop Telephone Switch 6 .

Basic Call Progress: Dialing
Off-Hook Closed Circuit Dialed Digits Pulses or Tones DC Current Local Loop

Telephone Switch

7

Basic Call Progress: Switching
Off-Hook Closed Circuit

Telephone Switch Address to Port Translation

DC Current Local Loop

Local Loop

8

Basic Call Progress: Ringing

Off-Hook Closed Circuit Ring Back Tone DC Current Local Loop

Telephone Switch
DC Open Cct. Ringing Tone Local Loop

9

Basic Call Progress: Talking Off-Hook Closed Circuit Voice Energy DC Current Local Loop Telephone Switch Voice Energy DC Current Local Loop 10 .

Analog Telephony—Signaling • Supervisory • Addressing • Call progress 11 .

due to off-hook • Ground Start (PBXs) – Seizure is detected when one wire is grounded – Seizure can be initiated in both directions 12 .Off-Hook Signaling • Loop Start (almost all telephones) – Seizure is detected when current flows through local loop.

Analog Telephony— Supervisory Signaling • Loop start – Current flow sensed • Ground start – Momentary ground ring lead Switch Switch 13 .

Loop Start Station PBX or Central Office Loop (Local or Station) Switch + – + – DC Current Switch Ringing AC Switch + – 14 .

E&M Signaling • PBXs. switches – – – – Separate signaling leads for each direction E-Lead (inbound direction) M-Lead (outbound direction) Allows independent signaling State On-Hook Off-Hook E-Lead Open Ground M-Lead Ground Battery Voltage 15 .

*. # (12 Digits) Digital Transmission ―Out-of-Band‖ Message-Based Signaling 16 .Signaling and Addressing Dial Pulse DTMF ISDN Analog Transmission ―In-Band‖ Signaling 0–9.

Pulse Dialing Off-Hook Make (Circuit Closed) Dialing Inter-Digit Next Digit Break (Circuit Open) 700 ms US:60/40 Break/Make Pulse Period (100 ms) 17 .

Tone Dialing Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) 1209 697 1336 1477 1633 1 2 3 A Timing: 60 ms Break 40 ms Make 770 852 4 5 6 B 7 8 9 C 941 * 0 # D 18 .

Freq.Network Call Progress Tones Tone Frequency (Hz) On Time Off Time Dial Busy Ringback. Mod 1Hz 19 .3 0.2 0.5 4 3 0.1 Continuous.3 0.2 0. Normal Ringback.1 O. PBX Congestion (Toll) Reorder (local) Receiver Off-hook No Such Number 350 + 440 480 + 620 440 + 480 440 + 480 480 + 620 480 + 620 1400 + 2060 + 2450 +2600 200 to 400 Continuous 0.5 2 1 0.

Voice Channel Bandwidth Voice Channel Output Voltage or Energy Voice Signal .2 1 Tone Dialing Signals 2 3 4 Frequency (K-Hertz) Systems Control Signals 20 .

000 to 50.Local Access Network Feeder Route Boundary Central Office 40.000 Lines Serving Area Boundary 21 .

Switching Systems • Manual control—Switch/cord boards Off-Hook Indicator Tip Ring Patch Cord Pairs Manual Ring 22 .

Point End Office EO w/ RSU Remote Sw. Unit 2 3 4C 4P 5 4C 4P 3 5 4X 5 5R 4C 4P 5 5R 5 4X R 23 .PSTN Network Hierarchy 1 1 1 Class 1 2 3 4C 4P 4X 5 5R R Name Regional Center Sectional Center Primary Center Toll Center Toll Point Interm.

415-577-3801 FX Foreign Exchange ARD Auto Ring Down 24 .Types of Voice Circuits Serving Area 415-NXX-XXX 415-577-3800 Class 5 Switch Serving Area 510-NXX-XXX Class 5 415-655-1400 Switch OPX Off-Premises Ext.

Echo in Voice Networks Talker Delay Listener Talker Echo Listener Echo 25 .

Normal Signal Flow 2-Wire Local Loop Central Office Receive Direction 2w-4w Hybrid Transmit Direction • 2.to 4-wire hybrid combines receive and transmit signals over the same pair 2-wire impedance must match 4-wire impedance • 26 .

How Does Echo Happen? • Echo is due to a reflection 2-Wire Local Loop Central Office Receive Direction Rx and Tx superimposed 2w-4w Hybrid Transmit Direction Impedance Mismatch at the 2w-4w Hybrid Is the Most Common Reason for Echo 27 .

and the magnitude of the echo Echo Is Unnoticeable (dB) Echo Path Loss Echo Is a Problem Echo Path Delay (ms) 28 .Echo Is Always Present • Echo as a problem is a function of the echo delay.

reduces the signal strength of the speaker • Echo suppresser – Acts like a noise gate. effectively making communications half-duplex 29 .Ways to Defeat Echo • Increase the loss in the echo path – Can often be the solution – Disadvantage: Static setting.

Echo Canceller • Most effective means for removing echo Central Office E/C + Echo Canceller Block Diagram Adaptive Filter 30 .

etc. 31 . grounding. current flow.Summary • Analog voice technology dates back to the 1900’s • Information exchange based on voltage.

Agenda • Basic Analog Telephony • Basic Digital Telephony • Consolidated Transport Networking 32 .

Digital Telephony Digital Trunking Switch Switch Analog Loop POTS CB Digital Network Switch Digital Loop Digital Network ISDN Switch 33 .

Digital Telephony Pulse Code Modulation—Nyquist Theorem Voice Bandwidth = 300 Hz to 3400 Hz Analog Audio Source Sampling Stage = Sample Codec Technique 8 kHz (8.000 Samples/Sec) 34 .

Pulse Code Modulation— Analog to Digital Conversion A—Law (Europe) Quantizing Noise 100100111011001 Stage 1 µ—Law (USA–Japan) Quantizing Stage 35 .

544 Mbps ―Robbed Bit‖ Channel Associated Signaling D4/Super Frame LSB/Channel Extended Super Frame LSB/Channel Frame 6 and 12 Frames 6.000 x 193 = 1.048 kbps Word of 7 Bits in the 0 Channel of Odd Frames 8.732 8 kHz DS0—64 kbps 32 Channels per Frame Bits per Frame Framing 24 24 x 8 + 1 = 193 D4/Super Frame (12) Extended Super Frame (24) 30 32 x 8 = 256 E1: Multiframe (16) J1: CRV in Bit 1 of frame 2.048 Mbps E1: CCS in TS 16 CAS in TS 16—2 Ch Every Other Frame J1: TS0 Framing Indicator 193rd Bit of Frame System Bit Rate Signaling 8. 12.733 Sampling Frequency Channel Bit Rate Time Slots per Frame 8 kHz DS0—64 kbps 24 E1/J1 ITU-T G.000 x 256 = 2. 24 .Digital Telephony—T1 and E1/J1 T1 ITU-T G. 18.

12. 18 and 24 for ABCD bits Common Channel Signaling (ISDN) uses TS 24 37 24 Frames per Extended SuperFrame 24 Time Slots—125m sec . 8.DS1 Framing Format 193rd Bit of each frame used for frame synchronization. 12. in frames 4. 20 and 24 Channel Associated Signaling robs the LSB of every byte in frames 6. 16. CRC and an FDL channel ESF Framing pattern is 001011. D4 Framing is 12 frames D4 framing pattern is: 100011011100 ESF is 24 frames. with framing.

Extended Super-Frame Format S Bits Frame Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Fe – – – 0 – – – 0 – – – 1 – – – 0 – – – 1 – – – 1 DL m – m – m – m – m – m – m – m – m – m – m – m – BC – C1 – – – C2 – – – C3 – – – C4 – – – C5 – – – C6 – – Bit Use in Each Channel Time Slot Traffic Signaling T Signaling—Bit Use Options 2 4 16 Bits 1–7 Bit 8 * A A A Bits 1–7 Bit 8 * A B B Bits 1–7 Bit 8 * A A C Bits 1–7 Bit 8 * A B D .

E1 Frame Format 16th Time Slot Contains Multiframe Alignment Signal ABCD Signaling Bits for Time Slots 1 and 17 Time Slot 0 Synchronization 0011011 Bits 2 to 8 16 Frames per Multiframe ABCD Signaling Bits for Time Slots 15 and 31 32 Time Slots—125usec 39 .

Digital Signaling Schemes Channel Associated Signaling Extended Super Frame Bit A B C D Audio Supervision Address Signaling Address Signaling On/Off Hook (Dial Pulse) (DTMF) Frame 6th 12th 18th 24th 40 .

Digital Signaling Schemes Common Channel Signaling E-1 Time Slot 0 Time Slot 16 Supervision Address Signaling Audio (Dial Pulse) Address Signaling On/Off Hook (DTMF) 41 .

Digital Telephony—Synchronization • Bit synchronization – – Primary reference source Ones density (except for J1/CMI) • Time slot synchronization – Bits/byte/channel • Frame alignment – Basic rule – 193rd bit pattern 42 .

Digital Telephony— Synchronization One Multiframe (ESF) 3 ms 1 12 24 1 Frame. 5.18us 648ns 43 . 125us. 193bits 24 Time Slots 1 12 24 1 Channel Time Slot.

Synchronization—Traditional Network Clocking Strata Master Clock Stratum 1 PRS Timing Timing .00001ppm Toll Office 2 Timing One per LATA Timing End Office End Office DCS Bits Distribution 3 4 PBX PBX 44 .

Digital Telephony— Analog Emulation and Pair Gain • Backbone to largest interoperable network in the world • Signaling information exchange based on ~30 year old concepts –Twiddling bits based on ~100-year old signaling 45 .

Digital Telephony Summary • Analog telephony emulation – Voice encoding – Limited signaling – Loop consolidation 46 .

Agenda • Basic Analog Telephony • Basic Digital Telephony • Consolidated Transport Networking 47 .

Consolidated Transport Networking Consolidated Transport Networking Remote/Branch Access Frame. DS0 C A L L P R O C E S S I N G Gateway/Integrated Switching Trunking Cell.CES. Packet. Cell. CES Gateway Campus/ Desktop Packet .

Consolidated Transport Network Solutions • PBX trunking – PBX trunk pathing – Intelligent voice network switching • Branch/remote office access – Virtual switch access – Tie line and OPX transport – Alternate “packet” routes 49 .

PSTN PBX2 PBX2 PBX Trunk Pathing PSTN PBX2 PSTN PBX1 PSTN PBX4 CES/IWF PSTN PBX1 CES/IWF PSTN PVCs CES/IWF CES/IWF PBX4 PSTN PBX 3 50 .

Network Synchronization— Adaptive Clocking Transmit Clock In-Bound Cells Outbound Frames Reassembly FIFO Queue PBX1 ATM Network IWF 1 IWF 2 PBX2 51 .

Network Synchronization— Synchronous Residual Time Stamp PRS1 PRS1 Transmit Clock PRS2 PBX1 Receive IWF 1 Clock ATM Network IWF 2 PBX2 52 .

Network Synchronization— Synchronous Clocking Traceable to a Single Reference Source PRS2 PRS PBX1 IWF 1 ATM Network IWF 2 PBX2 53 .

PSTN PBX2 PBX2 PBX Trunk Pathing PSTN PSTN PBX1 PBX4 Network Synchronization PSTN PBX2 PRS2 CES/IWF CES/IWF PSTN PBX1 PVCs CES/IWF CES/IWF PSTN PBX4 PBX3 PSTN 54 .

PBX Trunking PBX Trunk Pathing—Considerations • N2 connections • Tandem “hops” dependent on topology • Dedicated point-to-point circuits • Point-to-point signaling • Platform availability 55 .

PSTN PBX2 PBX2 PBX Trunking— Intelligent Voice Switching PBX2 PSTN PSTN PBX1 PSTN PBX4 PSTN PBX1 VNS Dynamic VCs PBX4 PSTN • PBX signaling –DPNSS –ETSI-QSIG –ISO-QSIG PBX3 PSTN 56 .

PBX Trunking—Intelligent Voice Network Switching • Efficient trunk groups • Efficient WAN utilization – – – – – PBX to network signaling Tandem switch replacement Dynamic setup of virtual circuits Compression Voice activity detection 57 .

Consolidated Transport— Branch/Remote Office Access • Explosive branch office “data” networking • Similar voice and data traffic patterns • Technology advancements 58 .

Satellite Access— Consolidated Transport PSTN PBX1 PBX Trunk Network PBX4 PSTN Access WAN PSTN PSTN H-PBX1 H-PBX2 59 .

Branch/Remote Office Virtual Switch Access PBX Access WAN KTS/ PBX 60 .

Branch/Remote Office Access Tie Line and OPX Transport KTS/ PBX PBX Access WAN KTS/ PBX KTS/ PBX 61 .

Consolidated Transport— Alternate Routes Access WAN PBX Backbone Network PSTN PBX 62 .

Usage Billed Service CTN Bandwidth Tie Trunk DDD ―A‖ Plan Billing Cycle Cost ($) Z 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Usage/Billing Cycle (Hours/Month) 63 .Fixed vs.

FAX Services PBX Trunk Network F PSTN PBX1 PBX4 PSTN Internet F F PSTN Access WAN F H-PBX1 PSTN F H-PBX2 64 .Consolidated Transport .

Agenda • Basic Analog Telephony • Basic Digital Telephony • Consolidated Transport Networking 65 .

Thank You! Q&A 66 .

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