Early Schools of Islamic Law

A Lecture by Asif Iftikhar
Email: asifi.ifti@gmail.com

May 4, 2012 10:07 AM

Sunni Schools H anafi  Mālikī  Shāfi„ī  H anbalī  .

Kufa. Ottoman period). Turkey. in Syria. Jordan. 767) -. and China Abu Hanifa (d. North India. Now. 804)  .Hanafi (Abbasid. Iraq  Abu Yusuf (d. Central Asia. Hasan alShaybani (d. Pakistan. 798)  Muhammad b.

Hanafi (Contd.)  Qiyas  „Illa (e. 39. 39: 55. 2: 185) . 62:9)  Istihsan (juristic preference: Q.g. Q.18.

Hanafi  Ijma„ (“my people will never agree upon error”): Consensus of the qualified legal authorities of a given generation (infallible). (In practice. local consensus accepted). .

lineage. intellect. life. Anas (d.g.  „aqiqa  „Amal Ahl al-Madina cf ijma„  Istislah (public good): based on protection of religion. and property. . North Africa  Malik b. 796) – Median  Al-Muwatta (the Trodden Path): e.Maliki Upper Egypt.

and Malaya  Muhammad b. South India. ijma„ (entire Muslim Community)   Qiyas .Shafi‟i Lower Egypt. Iraq. and Syria]  Risala (written in Cairo)  Qur‟an. Median.820) [Studied in Mecca. Idris al-Shafi„I (d. Sunna (in hadith).

Hanbali Saudi Arabia and Qatar  Ahmad b. Hanbal Literalist  Qur‟an and the Sunna (hadith) . 855)    Musnad Ahmad b. Hanbal (d.

1327)  „Abd al-Wahhab (d.Later Hanbalis  Later Hanbalis: Fatwas of the Companions.1792) . ahadith (with weak asnad). Sayings of Companions (individual). qiyas  Ibn Taymiyya (d.

765) – sixth Imam (Medina) .Shi‟ite Schools  Jafar al-Sadiq (d.

199 ahadith through ahl al-bayt Ibn Babuya. 16. also called al-Sadduq (d. 940). Abu Ja'far Muhammad al-Qummi .973 ahadith  . al-Kafi fi „ilm al-din [Baghdad]. Man La yah'dharhu al-faqih. 5. 991).Shi‟ite Hadith  Muhammad Kulayni (d.

Hadith Works: Tah'dhib al-ah'kam.590 ahadith. 1067). Taught in Baghdad.Shi‟ite Hadith  Muhammd al-Tusi (d.521 ahadith . al-Istibsar 5. 12. In Najaf established the Howza „Ilmiyyah.

Shi„ite Usul al-Fiqh Baghdad (11th Century)  Mutazilite Influence  .

1022 (pupil of Ibn Babuya):  Preeminence of the Qur‟an and Shi‟ite traditions but reason used in interpreting partially contradictory texts  Ijma‟ as consensus of the “Muslim” community when it corresponded to the opinion of the imam.Shi„ite Usul al-Fiqh Shaykh al-Mufid d. Analogy rejected.  .

if shi‟ite  . Hasan al-Tusi (d. also knwn as Shaykh al-Taifa (Shaykh of the Community) accepted traditions transmitted by only one narrator. 1024):Authority of traditions accepted but those contrary to reason or transmitted by only one narrator should be rejected  Muhammad b.Shi„ite Usul al-Fiqh Sharif al-Murtada (d.1067).

Mujtahids fallible – can disagree and change opinions.Shi„ite Usul al-Fiqh Allama Ayat Allah al-Hilli (d.)  . 1325): Ijtihad the prerogative of the „ulama. Usulis (17th Century.  Post Safavid Persia (16th Century)  Akhbaris Vs.

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