Name : Muhammad Farouk bin Harman Matric No. : UK20532 S.M.S.G.

(Fishery) Supervisor : Dr Ikhwanuddin

 

Fertilization procedure. Sperms are directly placed into the reproductive tract of a female by using means other than sexual intercourse or natural insemination (Batul 2011)

(Herbst. usually far less than 40 m. Depth range from 3 to 90 meter. 4 .Mud spiny lobster. Panulirus polyphagus Belongs to Family Palinuroidae Live on muddy substrates and sometimes on rocky bottoms.polyphagus . 1793) Panulirus polyphagus Collected widely by human  High commercial value.  Big deacreased in landings. 1103tonnes in 2000 and 274tonnes in 2009 (FAO 2000-2009) Farmers taking wild seeds Preventing recruitment for juveniles of P.

The female can be distinguish from the male by its swimming legs where it is bigger and have double pereiopods for holding the fertilized eggs. Double pereiopods Figure 1a: Female mud spiny lobster .

The male can be distinguish from the female by its swimming legs where it is smaller and have single pereipod. . Single pereiopod Figure 1b: Male mud spiny lobster.

lobsters support commercially valuable fisheries. 2004)  . Lobsters are invertebrates. which belong to the Crustacean class of the Phylum Arthropoda.(Velantino. in regions the most economically important one. 2010) In many parts of the world. (FAO.

Landing(Tonnes) 2500 Total Landing of Mud Spiny Lobster Through 2000-2009 in Malaysia 2059 2000 1700 1612 1500 1103 1000 1143 Total Landings Each Year 500 247 433 200 255 274 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Year .

(Tuan and Mao. The lobster has always been a favorite of the general public and in early 1970s this popularity was utilized to promote the idea of the lobster aquaculture. with activities based in the State of Sabah. 2004)  . 1995) The culture of spiny lobsters in Malaysia is still in its infancy. (Aiken and Waddy.

lobster seed is sourced from the wild. 1994) Spiny lobster has a complex larval development. (Booth and Phillips. At present. 1994)  . (Tuan and Mao.(Booth and Phillips. 2004)  Pueruli (juveniles of Panulirus polyphagus) are not yet commercially from hatcheries and so must come from the wild. with many developmental stages making it extremely difficult to raise seeds for aquaculture in a hatchery.

1993) difficult technically and prolonged. 2000. making it high risk. (Adams and Dalzell. Munro.).1) The seed production technology of lobsters.  A hatchery production of spiny lobster seed is not yet developed. Even if successful. Linton. seed production will be very Pitcher. . 1998. Panulirus polyphagus has not yet been develop. 1993.

2002) . Panulirus polyphagus. 1989a. Berry. Turner et al.2) Difficulty for getting the mature male of mud spiny lobster.. 1969a. (Heydorn. 1970. Male physiological maturity has been determined by the presence of mature spermatozoa in vasa deferentia of several spiny lobsters. MacDiarmid.  Size at onset of maturity is more difficult to assess in male than in female lobsters.

2006)  Artificial insemination remains as one of the most important assisted reproductive technologies. 2003) . (Bart et al.(Vishwanath. (Vishwanath.. Artificial insemination could improve the efficiency of fertilization rate and thus predictability of seed production. 2003)  The remarkable progress made in other assisted reproductive technologies does have the potential to rapidly generate offspring.

(Radhakrishnan. 1996) . There are no availability of a perfected hatchery technology and limited availability of juveniles and subadults from the wild.

 To develop artificial insemination technique through induced molting on mud spiny lobster Panulirus polyphagus. Panulirus polyphagus.  . To determine the success of fecundity and hatching rate using artificial insemination technique on mud spiny lobster.

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 The study will be carry out at the Marine Hatchery of the Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) and scheduled to be conducted from January 2012 until April 2012.   .000 Liter capacity tank is prepared for 5 female. 5 male and a pair of female and male as a control. Forceps for taking out the spermatophore from male and inserting it into the soft thelycum of female. 3.

Panulirus polyphagus Induced molting Extracting spermatophore Artificial insemination technique Data analysis Figure 3: Steps in the experiment. .Sampling and rearing the mud spiny lobster.

For the control. For the project purposes.    . a pair of female and male of mud spiny lobsters. one tank will be rear with 5 female and one tank will be rear with 5 male.METHODOLOGY Experimental design   The species in this study is mud spiny lobster. Panulirus polyphagus. Panulirus polyphagus will be rear as pairs (1 male and 1 female) in a tank filled with 80% filtered seawater maintained with constant gentle aeration. Female tank salinity will be manipulated in order to induced the molting of the female mud spiny lobster. The mud spiny lobsters will be fed on squid flesh.

Figure 4: Experimental Design .12 spawners Induced Molting (10 spawners) Molted spawners (10 spawaners) Artificial Insemination Natural spawners (2 spawners) Fecundity calculation Success of hatching (survival rate) Compare of fecundity and hatching rate from one artificial insemination female and one control female(natural spawner).

(repeated until molt) Female that ready to molt will be seperate from the others. . it is prepared for artificial insemination technique. Once the female molt.Induced Molting Salinity manipulating technique Salinity of 2ppt will be decrease from 30 ppt each day until 24 ppt and increase 2ppt until 30 ppt.

The spermatophore will be insert into the soft thelycum of female that recently went through moulting. .Artificial Insemination Steps Spermatophore from the mature male lobster are taken between the 4th and 5th walking legs using a forcep.

5-8. Ammonia test will be run at water quality lab. Salinity of 24-30ppt. Ammonia level: <0.     Temperature of 24°C-26°C.025 ppm. .5 YSI meter model 85. Dissolved oxygen: > 5 ppm pH : 6.

1)Fecundity = no. . of eggs/female = no. of none hatched eggs 2) Hatching Rate = Number of hatched larvae X 100 Fecundity  These data will then be process using the Excel and SPSS software using the One-way ANOVA test. of larvae hatched + no.

  Artificial insemination become valuable in aquaculture industry of mud spiny lobster. Increase the hatching and survival rate of the larvae. .

Sampling and rearing the mud spiny lobster. proposal writing and presentation. final presentation and submission. Thesis writing.Year Activities Preparation. Artificial insemination technique Statistical analysis – Excel & SPSS. Panulirus polyphagus Induced molting. 2011 September October November December January February 2012 March April May .

com/?LobsterBiology&id=408797) [Access on 16/11/2011] Balss.A.org/species. Institute of Oceanography.html) [Access on 17/11/2011] Velantino.D. 571-584. Present status of lobster cage culture in Vietnam. Nha Trang. J. 1994. Batul N. and Mao. Marine lobsters Of The World (http://speciesidentification.php?species_group=lobsters&menuentry=soorten&id=162&tab=ref s) [Access on 17/11/2011] .. Vishwanath.B. Vietnam. "Early Life History of Spiny Lobster. Radhakrishnan." Crustaceana 66(3): 271-294. 1914. 2004. V. p24-30. Lobster farming in India.Booth. B. Tuan. (http://ezinearticles. 1996. H. 2003. D. and Phillips. L. F. 2010. Artificial insemination: the state of the art. Lobster biology. N. S.buzzle. Proceeding of the ACIAR lobster ecology workshop. R. 48 : 96 – 98. E. Theriogenology 59.com/articles/how-is-artificial-insemination-done. Artificial insemination (http://www.

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(Kizhakudan and Patel) . 51–60 mm Carapace Length for females.  51–55 mm Carapace Length for males.

Area of spermatophore will be taken. .

Adult Juvenile Early phyllosoma Puerulus Late phyllosoma .

 Eggs and fertilized eggs is left with its mother until hatching. .

48 : 96 – 98. N. Nha Trang. V. 1994. Vishwanath. Hence. D. Vietnam. and Mao. F. Institute of Oceanography. B.  Reviews current status of lobster cage culture. Proceeding of the ACIAR lobster ecology workshop.  Synthesize current information on the lobster early life history  Discovery of the habitat young juveniles lead to examination of relationship peruli abundance at sea. Tuan. "Early Life History of Spiny Lobster. J.  The potential for increasing the yield from the wild fisheries is limited. R. Lobster farming in India. Artificial insemination: the state of the art.. level of settlement. p24-30. 571-584. E." Crustaceana 66(3): 271-294. Present status of lobster cage culture in Vietnam. identify major technical and sosio-economic constraint to further development. L.A. 2004. abundance of juveniles and recruitment. Radhakrishnan.Booth. the most imaginative management strategy seems to be increasing the production through population enhancement and aquaculture . and Phillips. as the stock is subjected to extreme fishing pressure and is nearing their long term equilibrium yield. Theriogenology 59. 2003.D. 1996.

B. 2010.buzzle. Marine lobsters Of The World (http://speciesidentification.Batul N.html) Explaining on Artificial Insemination [Access on 17/11/2011] Velantino. S. Artificial insemination (http://www. 1914.com/?Lobster-Biology&id=408797 Explain on lobster morphology Balss. H. Lobster biology. () [Access on 16/11/2011] http://ezinearticles.php?species_group=lobsters&menuentry=soorten&id=162&tab=refs) [Access on 17/11/2011]  Describe on general things on Panulirus polyphagus .com/articles/how-is-artificial-insemination-done.org/species.

Journal of Biology. 1995. F. Piyatiratitivorakul. D. B. . FAO. Velantino. Marine lobsters Of The World (http://speciesidentification. 2010. (http://ezinearticles.com/?LobsterBiology&id=408797) [Access on 16/11/2011] Balss. Capture production 2002. Fishery statistics." Crustaceana 66(3): 271-294. and Menasveta. 1993.org/species. S.Booth. 94/1. 1994. Rome.153-175 Pratoomchat. 2004. "Early Life History of Spiny Lobster. Lobster biology. Sperm quality of pond –reared and wild-caught Penaeus monodon in Thailand. J. 1914. Journal of the World Mariculture Society 24: 530-540. E and Waddy. and Phillips. FAO. L. P. D. Aiken.php?species_group=lobsters&menuentry=soo rten&id=162&tab=refs) [Access on 17/11/2011] . B. Chapter 8 : Aquaculture. S. S. H. FAO Yearbook.

Bart. 2003. H. N. Gwo. and Dalzell. 1993. "Tropical spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) farming in Vietnam – bioeconomics and perceived constraints to development. 2004. L. Petersen. Choosuk.D.B. Aquaculture Research. Batul N. J.buzzle.com/articles/how-is-artificial-insemination-done. and Thakur. South Pacific Commission. and Phuong. New Caledonia. H. Artificial insemination: the state of the art.. V. Proceeding of the ACIAR lobster ecology workshop. Penaeus monodon (Fibricius). E. T.C. 37.html) [Access on 17/11/2011] . and Mao. Pacific Island lobster fisheries: Bonanza or bankruptcy? Fisheries Newsletter #67." Aquaculture Research Adams. Vishwanath. P. p24-30. A. E. Artificial insemination (http://www. 31. 259-271 Radhakrishnan. Lobster farming in India.. 2010. N. Cryopreservation of aquatic invertebrate semen: a review. Aquaculture Research. Spermatophore cryopreservation and artificial insemination of black tiger shrimp. Theriogenology 59. Nha Trang. T. 2006. 1996. P.523-528. R. 48 : 96 – 98. Present status of lobster cage culture in Vietnam. 9. Vietnam. D. Institute of Oceanography.A. 2000. S. 571-584.Tuan.

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