 The origins of chocolate can be traced back to the ancient Maya and Aztec civilisations in

Central America, who first enjoyed 'chocolatl'; a much-prized spicy drink made from roasted cocoa beans.  Throughout its history, whether as cocoa or drinking chocolate beverage or confectionery treat, chocolate has been a much sought after food.  Because cocoa beans were valuable, they were given as gifts on occasions such as a child coming of age and at religious ceremonies.

 word "chocolate" entered the English language from Spanish. which many sources derived from the Nahuatl word "xocolatl" made up from the words "xococ" meaning sour or bitter. the language of the Aztecs. . from the word "chocolatl".  "chocolate" comes from Nahuatl. How the word came into Spanish is less certain. and "atl" meaning water or drink. and there are multiple competing explanations.

chile pepper.  The Nauhaul word xocolatl means "bitter water".  The Precolumbian peoples of the Americas drank chocolate mixed with vanilla. and ground beans of the Theobroma cacao. and achiote . the cacao or cocoa tree.  The word "Chocolate" comes from the [Nahuatl language of the Aztecs. Chocolate comes from the fermented. roasted.

 Although cocoa is originally from the Americas. .  They later created a process to make solid chocolate creating the modern chocolate bar. Europeans sweetened it by adding sugar and milk and removing the chile pepper.  today Western Africa produces almost twothirds of the world´s cocoa.

cakes. and other desserts. ice cream. pies. cookies. . candy. chocolate mousse.  There are many foods that contain chocolate such as chocolate bars. Today. it is one of the most popular and recognizable flavors in the world.

of hard work and dedication to detail.HOW TO MAKE CHOCOLATE  Making chocolate from the bean isn't easy. you can turn your kitchen into a miniature chocolate factory. .or possibly days -. along with some equipment of your own. But with many hours -. Chocolate companies invest millions of dollars into tools and machinery to turn bitter cacao beans into delicious chocolate bars.

 You can accomplish this in your oven or by using a store-bought roaster. .  The process is similar to roasting coffee beans.7-STEPS OF CHOCOLATE MAKING STEP1 Roast the cocoa beans. and the second image shows the after-result. and stop roasting when the beans start to crack (but not burn). lower the temperature gradually. except with gentler requirements: 5-35 minutes at temperatures between 120-160 degrees C(250-325 degrees F).  You must generally expose the beans to an initial high temperature.  The first image shows the cocoa beans before roasting.

 You can crack the beans with a hammer and remove the husks (which should be loose after proper roasting) by hand if you are working with a small batch. the beans must be cracked into nibs and winnowed. STEP2  Crack and winnow the beans. . whereby the husks (chaff) are removed.  After roasting.

stir them gently with your hands or a spoon as you blow on them with a hair dryer or small shop until the husks are blown away.  To winnow the nibs. you can use a very coarse. For larger batches. Corona type mill or purchase a specialized mill (shown here. . also see Citations below) to crack the beans into nibs.

 STEP3  Grind the nibs into a cocoa liqueur. Feed the nibs into the juicer one handful at a time. Vita-Mix. You may need to experiment to find equipment that gets the job done. being sure to push them in gently (not forcefully) or else the motor may overheat. meat grinders.  You will need equipment strong enough to liquefy the     nibs and separate the remaining husks. and most juicers will not work. Feed this mixture through the juicer again until only the husk comes through the spout. . Cocoa liqueur will come through the screen and a mixture of husks and liqueur will find its way through the spout. mortar and pestles. coffee grinders . General food processors.

 while refining reduces the size of the cocoa solids and sugar crystals. also called the "Stone Chocolate Melanger" . STEP4  Conch and refine the chocolate. conching affects the characteristic taste.  Both processes can be applied at the same time with a powerful wet grinder (success has been reported with a Spectra 10 melanger. smell and texture of the chocolate.  By definition.

but here are guidelines for the Spectra 10 melanger: .How you conch and refine the chocolate will depend on what equipment you use.

sugar.  Combine with non-fat dry milk powder.  Pour the chocolate mixture in the grinder. this is an optional flavoring). Melt the chocolate and the cocoa butter in the oven to about 120 degrees F. periodically pointing a hair dryer at it for 2-3 minutes to keep the chocolate melted during the first hour (until the friction created by grinding keeps the chocolate liquid without additional heat being needed). . lecithin and a vanilla pod (split and soaked in the cocoa butter 1 hour.

To take a break from refining (e. see Warnings). STEP4 contd… Continue refining for at least 10 hours and no more than 36 hours. turn off the grinder. . and leave it there over take the cover off and turn the oven on to about 150-175 degrees F until the chocolate melts. until the chocolate tastes smooth and balanced. at night while you're sleeping. put the covered bowl into an oven that's preheated to 150 degrees F but turned off. but be sure not to over-refine (or it will get gummy).g.

or it will be ruined.  However.  The most important thing is that you do not let any moisture in the chocolate. STEP5  Temper the chocolate  This is likely the most difficult part of the process. . the great thing about tempering is you can do it as many times as you like and the chocolate won't be ruined. but it ensures that the chocolate will be shiny and have a "snap" to it. rather than being matte and soft enough to melt in your hands.

transfer it to a dry. or you can use a double broiler on the stove. It's your choice.5 pounds of chocolate. just make sure that the chocolate does not burn (keep stirring) and you melt more than 1. cool bowl and stir until the chocolate temperature drops to about 100 degrees F. Melt your chocolate carefully. You can accomplish this in the oven if you are using larger quantities of chocolate. When the chocolate is melted to a temperature of around 110 or 120 degrees F. Use a candy thermometer to gauge the temperature. Any less and tempering could prove difficult. The chocolate in the bowl should remain at the same temperature while you work with chocolate outside of the bowl. .

Spread the chocolate out with the spatula. and then bring it all back together . non-porous counter top or other surface (granite or marble works best). Pour about one third of the contents of the bowl onto a hard.

 Continue doing this (for about 10-15 minutes) until the chocolate is about 85 degrees F. . the chocolate should be a thick. By the time the chocolate cools down to that point. gooey mass.

 Add some of the 100 degree F chocolate from the bowl to get the chocolate workable again. . Gently work the chocolate around.

and try not to create bubbles. You want it around 90 degrees F. . but never over 92 degrees F. Anything higher than this and you may need to temper the chocolate againbles.  Check the chocolate's temperature. Return the chocolate back into the bowl with the 100 degree chocolate. Stir it gently.

Some people find it effective to use a large syringe to place chocolate in the mold. but it is all about personal preference. . Again. When all of the chocolate has been added to the molds. careful not to spill. refrigerate. or let them harden at room temperature. Pour the chocolate into the molds. it's all about personal preference. you may either freeze. and there is no right way to do it. STEP6  Mold the chocolate while it is still at about 90 degrees F.

 STEP7  Remove the chocolate from the molds when the chocolate is hardened. If you are unsatisfied with your outcome. The molded chocolate should have a glossy appearance and should snap cleanly in two under pressure. you may re-temper the chocolate as long as the chocolate remains dry and you haven't burned it. .

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